For the most up-to-date information, check the Civilisation Overview and Structure Tree in the game.


(Versions 26- )
by Carl Ortega [aka Carltonus] Email: carlthegreat-6996@yahoo.com. (California, United States of America).

(Versions 25)
by Nicolas Tisserand [aka fatherbushido]

(Versions 1-24)
Version 1.0
by Michael D. Hafer [aka Mythos_Ruler] Email: michaeldhafer@gmail.com. (Indiana, United States of America).

Version 0.9 based on earlier work by
Sting and Apollonios. Email: synchronicity84@hotmail.com, apollonios@phoenix-temple.com and michael@wildfiregames.com.
Michael D. Hafer [aka Mythos_Ruler] Email: michaeldhafer@gmail.com. (Indiana, United States of America).
Joshua Gilbert [aka Shogun 144] Email: shogun144@gmail.com. (Michigan, United States of America).





  • Generic Name: Athenian Hoplite.
  • Specific Name: Hoplī́tēs Athēnaïkós.
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear (2.75m); Short Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Pilos helmet, hoplon, spear, tunic with sandals – pretty poor, but a middle-class citizen, proud of the fact that he can be a hoplite! He may not be well equipped, but he makes up for it in gusto!
      • Advanced: Chalcidian helmet, bronze muscled cuirass, hoplon, spear, decorative xiphos, tunic and sandals.
      • Elite: crested Corinthian helmet, linothorax cuirass, hoplon with cloth hanging from bottom edge (to stop arrows), spear, decorative xiphos, greaves, tunic, sandals - he’s rich, mucho dinero!
    • History: The basic unit of the Greek army and unique in its combat tactics. The Hoplite formed the core of the Greek army with a unique formation ready to hold all potential attacks.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy close-quarter combat. 2x vs. All Cavalry, but not particularly effective vs. ranged cav.
    • Special: May use the Phalanx formation after researching the "Othismos" technology.


  • Generic Name: Athenian Militia.
  • Specific Name: Psilós Athēnaïkós.
    • Class: Slinger.
    • Hacker Armament: Sling.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: .
      • Advanced: .
      • Elite: .
    • History: Psiloi (sing:Psilos) were the lower class infantry of Greek cities, only able to afford the most meager of weapons and armour.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: 2x vs. Infantry.
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Thracian Peltast.
  • Specific Name: Peltastḗs Thrâx.
    • Class: Javelinist.
    • Hacker Armament: Javelin; Short Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Simple, with tunic, barefoot and bareheaded, and a bunch of javelins about 4 feet long.
      • Advanced: Pelta, javelins, tunic, boots, traditional Thracian cap
      • Elite: Pilos helmet, with decorative spear held in shield hand, pelta, javelins, boots, cape, tunic
    • History: Peltasts carry a special shield called a pelta (from which they derived their name). The shield is deliberately curved to allow the Peltast to throw javelins faster and over a greater range. Peltasts were used to great affect by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra, successfully breaking up the Spartan phalanx and allowing the famous Theban Sacred Band to defeat the disorganized Spartan hoplites.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Cretan Mercenary Archer.
  • Specific Name: Toxótēs Krētikós.
    • Class: Archer.
    • Hacker Armament: Greek bow (smaller range than Persian bow; about 80% of the Persian equivalent).
    • Appearance: NOTE: Greek archers carried their quiver on their back. Bow is not too big, probably 3 feet in length.
      • Basic: Tunic, bow, quiver, sandals – poor and young. And no greaves.
      • Advanced: Advanced: Tunic, bow, quiver, Petasos hat or a similar looking broad-brimmed hat, sandals – things are getting better, more moolah!
      • Elite: Elite: Tunic, bow, quiver, sandals, Pilos helmet, light linen cuirass – about as good as it gets for archers. – Not too fancy, he’s WAY down there on the list in terms of money. His cuirass is a quilted linen example, NOT the type worn by hoplites. Pretty much he’d be the Advanced but with a quilted linen cuirass
    • History: Cretan archers were the best archers in Greece. They used a different bow with longer range than their mainland counterparts.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good against Infantry.
    • Special: Trainable from Athenian Triremes after researching "Iphicratean Reforms."



  • Generic Name: Light Cavalry.
  • Specific Name: Pródromos.
    • Class: Cavalry Javelinist.
    • Hacker Armament: Cavalry Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Tunic. No headwear or footwear. Cloak.
      • Advanced: Quilted armor. Straw hat. No footwear. Cloak
      • Elite: Linothorax. Bronze Boeotian helmet. Boots. Cloak.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Greek scout cavalry, good for hunting and harassing the enemy. The best such cavalry in Greece come from the pastoral territories of Thessaly.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Good hunter.
    • Special: -.


  • Generic Name: Greek Cavalry.
  • Specific Name: Hippeus.
    • Class: Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos short sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Tunic. Straw hat. No footwear.
      • Advanced: Linothorax. Straw hat. Sandals.
      • Elite: Bronze cuirass. Bronze Greek helmet with crest.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: The Greek cavalry was formed by the rich and aristocrats in ancient Greece, because breeding horses was expensive. They were therefore not used in great numbers.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Good vs. Siege Weapons, Archers, and Support Units.
    • Special: -.



  • Generic Name: Athenian Woman.
  • Specific Name: Gýnē Athēnaía.
    • Class: Female Citizen.
    • Appearance: A long himation covered by a short chiton. Long hair hair pinned up.
    • History: Athens was a conservative society as far as women were concerned. Though lower class women were known to work their family farms and tend their shops.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good at gathering food. Has an 'aura' that boosts the productivity of citizen-soldiers around her.
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Surgeon.
  • Specific Name: Iatros.
    • Class: Healer.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Chiton (player color), with a long white himation wrapped around him.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Old man. White hair. Optional beard.
    • History: The art of medicine was widely practiced in Classical Greece. Hippocrates was the first physician to separate religion and superstition from actual medicine, and many others followed his lead.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Merchant.
  • Specific Name: Émporos.
    • Class: Trader.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Normal chiton with himation (leather boots).
      • Helmet: Wide brimmed hat.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Man on trade cart.
      • Mount: Trade cart.
    • History: The Athenians were born traders. While not as widely spread as sea trade, land trade nevertheless was practiced on a reasonable scale.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Fishing Boat.
  • Specific Name: Ploîon Halieutikón.
    • Class: Fishing Ship.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: -
    • History: In contrast to hunting, fishing was not held in high regard and Hellenic artwork is nearly devoid of fishing scenes. Nonetheless fishing was popular both as the poor man’s entertainment and as a viable alternative to farming as a major food source.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Capacity: 1; support, infantry
    • Function: Gathering: Only method of collecting meat from fish.
    • Special: Garrison a support unit or infantry unit inside to boost fishing rate.


  • Generic Name: Trading Ship.
  • Specific Name: Ploîon Phortēgikón.
    • Class: Merchant Ship.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: Athenians are natural sailors and traded heavily throughout the Mediterranean basin. The Aegean Sea was their backyard, with trade colonies and tributary allies spread across hundreds of miles of sea shore.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Sets up trade routes between friendly Ports.
    • Special: Garrison a Trader inside to boost the amount of trade received.


  • Generic Name: Penteconter.
  • Specific Name: Pentēkónteros.
    • Class: Bireme.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Single-tier, 25 rows.
    • History: Penteconters were employed from 800 BC, mostly as a light support unit in the Athenian navy. After 600 BC, they were only seen in battle in very limited numbers. They were still in use by small states which could not afford a sufficient number of triremes for their navy.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: These ships were designed to go fast so they could transport troops to the sights of battles. They had a single tier (level) of 25 oarsmen on each side, and were called Penteconters.
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Athenian Trireme.
  • Specific Name: Triḗrēs Athēnaïkós.
    • Class: Trireme.
    • Appearence:
      • Shell: Three tiers of oars. Larger than the Penteconter.
    • History: The first Triremes were built circa 650BC, and by 500BC the Trireme was the most widely used heavy warship of the Greek city-states. In the Trireme the outriggers were now an integral part of the ship's hull. The Trireme also had a partial or full fighting deck above the rowers. The length of the Trireme remained approximately 35-38 meters, and the beam was approximately 3.5 metres. A Trireme carried 170 oarsmen, plus twenty sailors and fourteen marines in Greek navies. The top speed of a Trireme was approximately 11.5 knots. Some Triremes may have been able to reach higher speeds in short bursts. A Trireme travelling from Athens to Mitylene in 427BC made the 350 kilometre trip in only 24 hours, averaging eight knots (14.6 km/h). The Trireme could accelerate much faster than a Bireme or Penteconter, and was much more manoeuvrable. This gave the Trireme an advantage in combat, where higher speed and manoeuvrability meant a better chance of victory.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: The common tactics of the time were to ram one's opponent. Most ships at the time were equipped with a large battering ram at the bow which was used to crush the sides of an opponent. Another common tactic was to brush along the sides of the opponent's ship and snap all of the oars off. Once the ship was disabled and floundering in the waves, then the other ship could move in and finish its opponent. The Greeks employed the ramming tactics to excellent effect throughout out their naval battles. Speed was the key element for ramming and that required maneuverability and lightly armoured ships.
    • Special: Athenian Triremes can train Athenian Marines and Cretan Archers after researching "Iphicratean Reforms."



  • Generic Name: Stone Thrower.
  • Specific Name: Lithobolos.
    • Class: Catapult
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Stone-throwing catapult, similar to the Roman onager.
    • History: The Lithobolos (Stone Thrower) hurled stones of 10 lbs (4.5 kilos) to 180 lbs (82 kilos) in weight. They all looked alike and differed only in size: the dimensions being calculated by a complex mathematical formula based on the spring diameter. Such machines were normally brought to point-blank range (150-200 yards [157m - 185m]) and were capable of stripping the battlements from fortified walls.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Anti-building siege. Used to take down Walls and Fortresses. 10-20% weaker than the Roman Ballista.
    • Special: Does bonus damage vs. enemy units garrisoned atop walls and towers.


  • Generic Name: Bolt Shooter.
  • Specific Name: Oxybeles.
    • Class: Ballista
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Scorpion-like large arrows or "bolts."
    • History: The Oxybeles was designed in 375 BC, because the composite bow developed so fast that it grew too large and too powerful to be operated by a single human archer. The bow was placed on a tripod and a winch was fitted to draw it back. It was still made out of horn, wood and sinew, but it was bigger and more powerful then the gastraphetes bow. Because of that, the range was greater, and by placing the bow on a stable tripod, the accuracy of the shot was also greatly improved. However, the limits of the materials were nearly reached, and the engineers still wanted more power.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Building and Infantry killer. Smaller and weaker than the Roman Scorpion.
    • Special: Bonus vs. Infantry and Infantry Archers.


  • Generic Name: Battering Ram
  • Specific Name: Kriós
    • Class: Ram.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Covered ram.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Takes down enemy buildings, especially gates. Can garrison units inside for extra attack and speed.
    • Special: Bonus vs. gates.



  • Generic Name: Athenian Marine.
  • Specific Name: Épibatēs Athēnaïkós.
    • Class: Champion Infantry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos short sword.
    • Appearance: Bronze helmets of various Greek styles.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good as a garrison for warships and to make quick hit and run attacks along enemy sea shores.
    • Special: Trained on Athenian Triremes after researching the "Iphicratean Reforms" special technology.


  • Generic Name: City Guard.
  • Specific Name: Epilektos.
    • Class: Champion Infantry Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long spear, longer than a standard spear, but not as long as a Macedonian sarissa.
    • Appearance: Late 5th and early 4th century Greek helmet variations. Small aspis. Leather boots and leather or quilted spolas body armour.
    • History: Iphicrates was an Athenian general famous for his reforms, which lightened the armour of Athenian hoplites, but also increased the length of their spears and swords. The Epilektoi are a group of "picked" hoplites armed in the Iphicratean manner and garrisoned at the expense of the city.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy infantry.


  • Generic Name: Scythian Archer.
  • Specific Name: Toxotes Skythikos.
    • Class: Champion Infantry Archer.
    • Hacker Armament: Scythian bow.
    • Appearance: Scythian hat and tunic. Cape and boots.
    • History: The Athenians were known for hiring Scythian mercenaries as an archer corps. These men were sent with the Athenian army to Plataea and took part in the glorious Greek victory over the Persian forces there.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good vs. Swordsmen.



  • Generic Name: Themistocles.
  • Specific Name: Themistoklês.
    • Class: Hero1.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
      • Helmet: No helmet.
      • Shield: Round shield with a coiled snake design.
      • Figure(s): Think of a saltier Maximus from the movie Gladiator.
    • History: The general whom persuaded the Athenians to invest their income from silver mines in a war navy of 200 Triremes. A key figure during the Persian Wars, he commanded the victorious Athenian navy at the decisive battle of Salamis in 479 BC. Later, he pursued an active policy against the Persians in the Aegean, thereby laying the foundations of future Athenian power. Ostracised by the Athenians, he was forced to flee to the protection of the Persians.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Naval Enhancement.
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (When garrisoned in a ship, all nearby war ships are 20% faster. Ships are also 20% cheaper during his lifespan).


  • Generic Name: Pericles.
  • Specific Name: Periklēs.
    • Class: Hero2.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Reinforced tube and toke corselet, pericnimides (Bronze Greaves), tailored garments.
      • Helmet: Crested Corinthian helmet, pushed back from his face.
      • Shield: Aspis with Athenian Owl design.
    • History: Pericles was the foremost Athenian politician of the 5th Century.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Building Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (Buildings construct much faster within his vision. Temples are much cheaper during his lifetime.)


  • Generic Name: Iphicrates.
  • Specific Name: Iphikratēs.
    • Class: Hero3.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword (ornamental).
    • Ranged Armament: Heavy Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: White tunic with purple trimmings.
      • Helmet: Thracian type.
      • Shield: Aspis.
      • Figure(s): Similar to a hoplite, but cuirass is covered with lamellar plate mail.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Speed Enhancement.
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (When placed into formation all units in the formation +15% speed and +15% armor. All Peltasts +15% speed.)


  • Generic Name: Xenophon.
  • Specific Name: Xenophōn.
    • Class: Atlas-only hero.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword (ornamental).
    • Ranged Armament: Heavy Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Quilted linothorax
      • Helmet: Thracian type.
      • Shield: Aspis.
      • Figure(s): Similar to a hoplite.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function:
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura


  • None yet.


  • Melee Infantry: Athenian Hoplite.
  • Ranged Infantry: Athenian Slinger Militia.
  • Cavalry: Prodromos.


  • Swordsman.
  • Archer.
  • Cavalry Spearman.
  • Cavalry Archer.
  • Quinquereme.
  • Battering Ram.



  • Generic Name: Household.
  • Specific Name: Oikos.
    • Class: House.
    • History: Athenian houses from the Classical Age were generally humble yet stylish. During the Hellenistic Age, however, luxurious palaces and estates became commonplace in the rich Hellenistic metropolises like Antioch, Alexandria and Seleucia.
  • Generic Name: Granary.
  • Specific Name: Sītobólion.
    • Class: Farmstead.
    • History: Grain wasn't plentiful in Attica, which is why it was carefully stored in granaries, some of it being reserved for times of siege.
  • Generic Name: Field.
  • Specific Name: Agrós.
    • Class: Field.
    • History: The Athenians were not reknowned as farmers and preferred to herd livestock or cultivate olives instead.
  • Generic Name: Corral.
  • Specific Name: Épaulos.
    • Class: Corral.
    • History: Basic animal pen. Also for horses, which were the domain of the truly wealthy in Greece.
  • Generic Name: Warehouse.
  • Specific Name: Apothḗkē.
    • Class: Mill.
    • History: Resources and building materials were kept in warehouses.
  • Generic Name: Outpost.
  • Specific Name: Prophylagma.
    • Class: Outpost.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Palisade.
  • Specific Name: .
    • Class: Palisade.
    • History: A cheap, quick defensive structure constructed with sharpened tree trunks.
  • Generic Name: Dock.
  • Specific Name: Limḗn.
    • Class: Dock.
    • History: Greece is a sea country, which is why some of the greatest Hellenic and Hellenistic cities like Ephesus, Corinth, Alexandria and Antioch were built by the sea. It should also be noted that all colonies during the Great Colonisation were thriving port centres, which traded with the local population. Athens itself had a large sea port at Piraeus, which consisted of 3 separate harbors surrounded by mighty walls and easily chained off to prevent amphibious attacks by enemy fleets. As long as Piraeus was unconquered, Athens remained monarch of the seas.
  • Generic Name: Barracks.
  • Specific Name: Stratēgeîon.
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: The Strategion was the main military headquarters, where important decisions were taken and plans for battles discussed by the city's elected Strategoi.
  • Generic Name: Stable.
  • Specific Name: Hippōn.
    • Class: Stable.
    • History: Stables are where horses are tended to.


  • Generic Name: Civic Centre.
  • Specific Name: Agorā́.
    • Class: Civic Centre.
    • History: The most important place in Athens, the Agora served many purposes; it was a place for public speeches and was the stage for civic life and commercial interests.
  • Generic Name: Temple.
  • Specific Name: Neṓs.
    • Class: Temple.
    • History: The Athenians built marvelous temples in order to honour their polytheistic pantheon. While all gods were venerated, Athena specifically was worshiped as the namesake and protector of the city. She was the goddess of wisdom and of war and the daughter of Zeus.
  • Generic Name: Forge.
  • Specific Name: Khalkeîon.
    • Class: Forge.
    • History: The earliest Greek smiths worked in copper, then bronze, and then finally iron.
  • Generic Name: Marketplace.
  • Specific Name: Empórion.
    • Class: Market.
    • History: Athens was a center of trade for the Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. The Emporion is the Athenian marketplace in the Athenian port of Piraeus, where commerce and trading occur.
  • Generic Name: Defense Tower.
  • Specific Name: Pyrgíon.
    • Class: Defense Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Stone Wall.
  • Specific Name: Teîkhos.
    • Class: Wall.
    • History: Athens was surrounded by stone walls for protection against enemy raids. Some of these fortifications, like the Athenian Long Walls, for example, were massive structures.
  • Generic Name: Wall Tower.
  • Specific Name: Pýrgos.
    • Class: Wall Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Gate.
  • Specific Name: Pýlai.
    • Class: Gate.
    • History: The Athenian city wall was pierced by numerous gates and posterns of various sizes and importance. The "Sacred Gate" was the gate on the road to Eleusis. Another gate was the Dipylon Gate, whose name literally means "Double Gate."


  • Generic Name: Arsenal.
  • Specific Name: Hoplothēkē.
    • Class: Arsenal.
    • History: .
  • Generic Name: Fortress.
  • Specific Name: Epiteíchisma.
    • Class: Fortress.
    • History: Fortresses (also called a "phrourion") were built to guard passes and atop hills in order to command plains and valleys below. One such Athenian fortress, Gyphtokastro, guarded the pass from Attica into Boeotia.


  • Generic Name: Greek Theater.
  • Specific Name: Théātron.
    • Class: SB1.
    • History: Greek theaters were places where the immortal tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and many other talented dramatists were staged to the delight of the populace. They were instrumental in enriching Hellenic culture.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: When built, activates the "Hellenisation" civ bonus, which increases territory effect of all buildings by +20%.
  • Generic Name: Gymnasium.
  • Specific Name: Gymnásieon.
    • Class: SB2.
    • History: The Gymnasion was a vital place in Athens, where physical exercises were performed and social contacts established.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Trains Champion Units.
  • Generic Name: Council Chamber.
  • Specific Name: Prytaneîon.
    • Class: SB3.
    • History: The Prytaneion is the meeting place for the city elders to dine and to make swift decisions.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Trains Athenian heroes and researches later-game upgrades.


  • Generic Name: Temple of the Olympian Zeus.
  • Specific Name: Hieron tou Dios tou Olympiou.
    • Class: Wonder.
    • History: A colossal temple located at the heart of ancient Athens. Placeholder wonder until the Parthenon ("Neṓs Parthenos") has been modeled.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Functions as a semi-Temple, healing wounded units within its walls.


See Theatron special structure above and "Hellenisation" civ bonus below.




  • CB1
    • Name: Silver Owls.
    • History: The mines at Laureion in Attica provided Athens with a wealth of silver from which to mint her famous and highly prized coin, The Athenian Owl.
    • Effect: Metal mining gathering rates increased by +10% for each passing age.
  • CB2
    • Generic Name: Hellenization.
    • Specific Name: Exellinismós.
    • History: The Greeks were highly successful in Hellenizing various foreigners. During the Hellenistic Age, Greek was the 'lingua franca' of the Ancient World, spoken widely from Spain to India.
    • Effect: Constructing an expensive Theatron increases the territory expanse of all buildings by 20%.


  • TB
    • Name: Delian League.
    • History: Shortly after the great naval victories at Salamis and Mykale, the Greek city-states instituted the so-called Delian League in 478 BC, whose purpose was to push the Persians out of the Aegean region. The allied states contributed ships and money, while the Athenians offered their entire navy.
    • Effect: Ships construct +25% faster.


  • Infantry: Very good. Almost all technologies. Ranged units are the exception: neither here, nor there. Ranged techs average.
  • Cavalry: Mediocre to poor. Nothing to match the cavalry of the Persians, for instance.
  • Naval: Very good. Almost all technologies.
  • Siege: Good. Most technologies, though low selection of siege weapons to choose from.
  • Economy:
    • Farming: Mediocre. They should get some of the technologies, but not the most advanced ones.
    • Mining: Very good. Almost all, if not all, technologies. Coinage was highly developed.
    • Lumbering: Mediocre. Same as farming.
    • Hunting: Very limited. It was practised mostly as a sport by the rich.
    • Land Trade: Mediocre. Definitely nothing to match that of the best civs in the area.
    • Naval Trade: Very good, one of the best in the game. Almost all techs.
    • Architecture: Above average. I would say something on the order of 80% of that of the Persians.
    • Defences: Very good. Almost all techs.


  • ST1
    • Name: Othismos.
    • History: The classical phalanx formation was developed about VIII century BC. It was eight men deep and over two hundred men wide, and used overlapping shields and combined pushing power. "Othismos" refers to the point in a phalanx battle where both sides try to shove each other out of formation, attempting to breaking up the enemy lines and routing them.
    • Effect: The player gains the ability to order his troops into a Phalanx formation, providing +30% Attack and +30% Pierce Armour if attacked from the front.
  • ST2
    • Name: Long Walls.
    • History: The Long Walls of Athens were constructed under the auspices of the wily Themistokles and extended 6 km from the city to the port of Piraeus. This secured the city's sea supply routes and prevented an enemy from starving out the city during a siege.
    • Effect: The Athenians can build their stone walls in neutral territory. Construction time for walls is reduce by 50%.
  • ST3
    • Name: Iphicratean Reforms.
    • History: -.
    • Effect: Athenian triremes can train Marines (Epibastes Athenaikos) and Cretan Mercenary Archers .
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