For the most up-to-date information, check the Civilisation Overview and Structure Tree in the game.



(Versions 26, 27, 29- )
by Carl Ortega [aka Carltonus] Email: carlthegreat-6996@yahoo.com. (California, United States of America).

(Version 28)
added OUTDATED notification by Langbart

(Version 25)
by Nicolas Tisserand [aka fatherbushido]

(Versions 1-24)
Version 1.0
by Michael D. Hafer [aka Mythos_Ruler] Email: michaeldhafer@gmail.com. (Indiana, United States of America).

Version 0.9 based on earlier work by
Sting and Apollonios. Email: synchronicity84@hotmail.com, apollonios@phoenix-temple.com and michael@wildfiregames.com.
Michael D. Hafer [aka Mythos_Ruler] Email: michaeldhafer@gmail.com. (Indiana, United States of America).
Joshua Gilbert [aka Shogun 144] Email: shogun144@gmail.com. (Michigan, United States of America).





  • Generic Name: Athenian Hoplite.
  • Specific Name: Hoplítēs Athēnaîos.
    • Class: Citizen Hoplite.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear (dory, 2.75 meters), Xiphos (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
    • History: Basic unit of the Greek army and unique in its combat tactics, the Hoplite formed the core of said army with a unique formation ready to hold all potential attacks.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy close-quarter combat. Deals triple damage against cavalry, but not particularly effective against ranged cavalry.
    • Special: As a hoplite, may use the Phalanx formation (minimum 10 units).


  • Generic Name: Athenian Slinger Militia.
  • Specific Name: Psilòs Athēnaîos.
    • Class: Citizen Slinger.
    • Ranged Armament: Sling.
    • Appearance:
    • History: Psiloi were the lower-class infantry of Greek cities, only able to afford the most meager of weapons and armour.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: .
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Thracian Peltast.
  • Specific Name: Peltastḗs Thrâx.
    • Class: Mercenary Infantry Javelineer.
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin (measuring about 4 feet long)
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Tunic, pelta, sandals.
      • Advanced: Thracian cap (wool, team color), tunic, decorated pelta, sandals.
      • Elite: Thracian cap (leather), tunic, cape, ornate pelta, strapped sandals.
    • History: Peltasts carry a crescent-shaped shield called a pelta, from which they derived their name. The shield is deliberately curved to allow them to throw javelins faster and over a greater range. Peltasts were used to great affect by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra, successfully breaking up the Spartan phalanx and allowing the famous Theban Sacred Band to defeat the disorganized Spartan hoplites.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: .
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Cretan Mercenary Archer.
  • Specific Name: Toxótēs Krētikós.
    • Class: Mercenary Infantry Archer.
    • Ranged Armament: Greek bow (smaller range than Persian bow; about 80% of the Persian equivalent), probably 3 feet in length.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Headband, tunic, quiver
      • Advanced: Petasos (or a similar looking broad-brimmed hat), tunic, quiver, round pelte, sandals.
      • Elite: Boeotian or pilos helmet, tunic, linothorax, quiver, decorated round pelte, sandals.
    • History: Cretan archers were the best archers in Greece. They used a different bow with longer range than their mainland counterparts.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good against Infantry.
    • Special: .



  • Generic Name: Scout Cavalry.
  • Specific Name: Pródromos.
    • Class: Citizen Cavalry Javelineer.
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Straw hat, tunic, cape, sandals.
      • Advanced: Straw hat, quilted linothorax, cape, sandals.
      • Elite: Boeotian helmet, decorated linothorax, cape, sandals, saddle cloth.
    • History: Greek scout cavalry, good for hunting and harassing the enemy. The best such cavalry in Greece come from the pastoral territories of Thessaly.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good hunter.
    • Special: -.


  • Generic Name: Greek Cavalry.
  • Specific Name: Hippeús.
    • Class: Citizen Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Kopis.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Straw hat, tunic.
      • Advanced: Straw hat, linothorax, sandals.
      • Elite: Crested Illyrian helmet, quilted linothorax or bronze muscle cuirass, kopis sheath, greaves, sandals, saddle cloth.
    • History: The cavalry was formed by the rich and the aristocracy in ancient Greece because breeding horses was expensive. Therefore, they were not used in great numbers.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good vs. Siege Weapons, Archers, and Support Units.
    • Special: -.



  • Generic Name: Athenian Woman.
  • Specific Name: Gýnē Athēnaía.
    • Class: Female Citizen.
    • Appearance: Long hair pinned up.
    • History: Athens was a conservative society as far as women were concerned, though lower-class women were known to work their family farms and tend their shops.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good at gathering food.
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Surgeon.
  • Specific Name: Iatros.
    • Class: Healer.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Chiton in player color, with a long white himation wrapped around him.
      • Figure(s): Old man, with white hair and optional beard.
    • History: The art of medicine was widely practiced in Classical Greece. Hippocrates was the first physician to separate religion and superstition from actual medicine, and many others followed his lead.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: .
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Merchant.
  • Specific Name: Émporos.
    • Class: Trader.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Wide-brimmed hat, normal chiton with himation (leather boots).
      • Figure(s): Man with trade cart.
      • Mount: Horse, trade cart.
    • History: The Athenians were born traders. While not as widely spread as sea trade, land trade nevertheless was practiced on a reasonable scale.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Greek Slave.
  • Specific Name: Doulos.
    • Class: Atlas-only support unit.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Short tunic.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: .
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Fishing Boat.
  • Specific Name: Ploîon Halieutikón.
    • Class: Fishing Boat.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: -
    • History: In contrast to hunting, fishing was not held in high regard and Hellenic artwork is nearly devoid of fishing scenes. Nonetheless fishing was popular both as the poor man’s entertainment and as a viable alternative to farming as a major food source.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Limit: 1 (support, infantry)
    • Function: Gathering is their only method of collecting.
    • Special: Garrison a support unit or infantry unit inside to boost fishing rate.


  • Generic Name: Trading Ship.
  • Specific Name: Ploîon Phortēgikón.
    • Class: Merchant Ship.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: Athenians are natural sailors and traded heavily throughout the Mediterranean basin. The Aegean Sea was their backyard, with trade colonies and tributary allies spread across hundreds of miles of seashore.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Limit: 15.
    • Function: Sets up trade routes between friendly Ports.
    • Special: Garrison a Trader inside to slightly boost the amount of goods received.


  • Generic Name: Penteconter.
  • Specific Name: Pentēkónteros.
    • Class: Light Warship
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Single-tier, 25 rows.
    • History: Penteconters were employed from 800 BC, mostly as a light support unit in the Athenian navy. After 600 BC, they were only seen in battle in very limited numbers. They were still in use by small states which could not afford a sufficient number of triremes for their navy.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Limit: 20.
    • Function: These ships were designed to go fast so they could transport troops to the sights of battles. They had a single tier (level) of 25 oarsmen on each side, hence the name.
    • Special: -


  • Generic Name: Athenian Trireme.
  • Specific Name: Triḗrēs Athēnaía.
    • Class: Medium Warship.
    • Appearence:
      • Shell: Three tiers of oars. Larger than the Penteconter.
    • History: The first Triremes were built circa 650BC, and by 500BC the Trireme was the most widely used heavy warship of the Greek city-states. In the Trireme the outriggers were now an integral part of the ship's hull. The Trireme also had a partial or full fighting deck above the rowers. The length of the Trireme remained approximately 35-38 meters, and the beam was approximately 3.5 metres. A Trireme carried 170 oarsmen, plus twenty sailors and fourteen marines in Greek navies. The top speed of a Trireme was approximately 11.5 knots. Some Triremes may have been able to reach higher speeds in short bursts. A Trireme travelling from Athens to Mitylene in 427BC made the 350 kilometre trip in only 24 hours, averaging eight knots (14.6 km/h). The Trireme could accelerate much faster than a Bireme or Penteconter, and was much more manoeuvrable. This gave the Trireme an advantage in combat, where higher speed and manoeuvrability meant a better chance of victory.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Limit: 30.
    • Function: The common tactics of the time were to ram one's opponent. Most ships at the time were equipped with a large battering ram at the bow which was used to crush the sides of an opponent. Another common tactic was to brush along the sides of the opponent's ship and snap all of the oars off. Once the ship was disabled and floundering in the waves, then the other ship could move in and finish its opponent. The Greeks employed the ramming tactics to excellent effect throughout out their naval battles. Speed was the key element for ramming and that required maneuverability and lightly armoured ships.
    • Special: Athenian Triremes can train Athenian Marines and Cretan Archers after researching "Iphicratean Reforms".



  • Generic Name: Siege Catapult.
  • Specific Name: Lithobolos.
    • Class: Stone Thrower.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Stone-throwing catapult.
    • History: The Lithobolos hurled stones of 10-180 lbs (4.5-82 kg) in weight. They all looked alike and differed only in size: the dimensions being calculated by a complex mathematical formula based on the spring diameter. Such machines were normally brought to point-blank range (150-200 yards [157m - 185m]) and were capable of stripping the battlements from fortified walls.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Anti-building siege. Used to take down Walls and Fortresses. 10-20% weaker than the Roman Ballista.
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Bolt Shooter.
  • Specific Name: Oxybeles.
    • Class: Bolt Shooter
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Scorpion-like large arrows or "bolts".
    • History: The Oxybeles was designed in 375 BC, because the composite bow developed so fast that it grew too large and too powerful to be operated by a single human archer. The bow was placed on a tripod and a winch was fitted to draw it back. It was still made out of horn, wood and sinew, but it was bigger and more powerful than the gastraphetes (belly bow). Because of that, the range was greater, and by placing the bow on a stable tripod, the accuracy of the shot was also greatly improved. However, the limits of the materials were nearly reached, and the engineers still wanted more power.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Building and Infantry killer. Smaller and weaker than the Roman Scorpion.
    • Special: .


  • Generic Name: Battering Ram
  • Specific Name: Kriós
    • Class: Ram.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Covered ram.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Garrison Limit: 10.
    • Function: Takes down enemy buildings, especially gates. Can garrison units inside for extra attack and speed.
    • Special: Cannot attack Fields or Organic Units.



  • Generic Name: Athenian Marine.
  • Specific Name: Epibátēs Athēnaîos.
    • Class: Champion Infantry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos.
    • Appearance: Crested pilos, Chalcidian, Corinthian, or Illyrian helmet, tunic or quilted spolas, aspis with arrow curtain, xiphos sheath.
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good as a garrison for warships and to make quick hit-and-run attacks along enemy-held seashores.
    • Special: Trained on Athenian Triremes after researching the "Iphicratean Reforms" special technology.


  • Generic Name: City Guard.
  • Specific Name: Epílektos.
    • Class: Champion Hoplite.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear, longer than standard, but not as long as a Macedonian sarissa.
    • Appearance: Pilos or Phrygian helmet, leather quilted linothorax/spolas, small aspis, strapped sandals.
    • History: Iphicrates was an Athenian general famous for his reforms, which lightened the armour of Athenian hoplites, but also increased the length of their spears and swords. The Epilektoi are a group of "picked" hoplites armed in the Iphicratean manner and garrisoned at the expense of the city.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Deals triple damage against cavalry.
    • Special: As a hoplite, may use the Phalanx formation (minimum 10 units).


  • Generic Name: Scythian Archer.
  • Specific Name: Toxótēs Skythikós.
    • Class: Champion Infantry Archer.
    • Ranged Armament: Scythian bow.
    • Appearance: Scythian hat and tunic, cape, boots.
    • History: The Athenians were known for hiring Scythian mercenaries as archer corps. These men were sent with the Athenian army to Plataea and took part in the glorious Greek victory over the Persian forces there.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: .



  • Generic Name: Themistocles.
  • Specific Name: Themistoklês.
    • Class: Hero Infantry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos.
    • Appearance: Crested Corinthian helmet, bronze muscle cuirass with outer garments, aspis with coiled snake design, greaves, sandals.
      • Figure(s): Think of a saltier Maximus from Gladiator.
    • History: The general who persuaded the Athenians to invest their income from silver mines in a war navy of 200 Triremes. A key figure during the Persian Wars, he commanded the victorious Athenian navy at the decisive battle of Salamis in 479 BC. Later, he pursued an active policy against the Persians in the Aegean, thereby laying the foundations of future Athenian power. Ostracised by the Athenians, he was forced to flee to the protection of the Persians.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Naval Enhancement.
    • Specials:
      • "Inspired Defense" gives the structure he garrisons +2 points regeneration rate.
      • "Naval Commander" gives the ship he garrisons +50% movement speed, as well as -30% batch training time if an Athenian Trireme.
      • "Naval Architect" reduces metal cost for ships by 50% and construction time by 20%.


  • Generic Name: Pericles.
  • Specific Name: Periklēs.
    • Class: Hero Hoplite.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear (dory).
    • Appearance: Crested Corinthian helmet (pushed back from his face), scale linothorax, cape, aspis with Athenian owl design, greaves, sandals.
    • History: Pericles was the foremost Athenian politician of the fifth century.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Building Enhancement.
    • Special:
      • "Inspired Defense" gives the structure he garrisons +2 points regeneration rate.
      • "Periclean Building Program" aura boosts build rate of citizens 60 meters around him by 15%.
      • "Temple of Athenian Nike" reduces stone cost for new Temples by 25% and increases the heal rate of soldiers inside them by 2 points.


  • Generic Name: Iphicrates.
  • Specific Name: Iphikratēs.
    • Class: Hero Infantry Javelineer.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos (ornamental).
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin.
    • Appearance: Crested Thracian helmet, leather linothorax/spolas, pelta, strapped sandals.
      • Figure(s): Similar to a light hopelite.
    • History: Iphicrates was a famous general who introduced reforms to the Athenian military of the late fifth and early fourth centuries BCE.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Speed Enhancement.
    • Special:
      • "Inspired Defense" gives the structure he garrisons +2 points regeneration rate.
      • "Formation Reforms" gives the units in his formation +3 to crush, hack, and pierce resistance, as well as a 15% boost in movement speed.
      • "Peltast Reforms" increases the speed of infantry javelineers by 15%.


  • Generic Name: Xenophon.
  • Specific Name: Xenophōn.
    • Class: Atlas-only Hero Infantry Javelineer.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword (ornamental).
    • Ranged Armament: Heavy javelin.
    • Appearance: Crested Thracian helmet, quilted/scale linothorax, aspis, greaves, sandals.
      • Figure(s): Similar to a light hoplite.
    • History: Xenophon was an Athenian general, philosopher, and historian who famously commanded ten thousand Greek mercenaries in a vain attempt to overthrow Artaxerxes II.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function:
    • Special:
      • "Inspired Defense" gives the structure he garrisons +2 points regeneration rate.


  • Generic Name: Solon.
  • Specific Name: Solōn.
    • History: .
    • Special:
      • "Economic Reforms" - Solon instituted several economic reforms encouraging commerce and agriculture. Workers +15% gather speed 80 meters around the catafalque.
      • "Economic Fortune" - Solon brought in a new system of weights and measures, fathers were encouraged to find trades for their sons. Economic technologies -10% resource costs while this catafalque is under your control.


  • Melee Infantry: Athenian Hoplite.
  • Ranged Infantry: Athenian Slinger Militia.
  • Cavalry: Pródromos.


  • Cavalry Spearman.
  • Cavalry Archer.
  • Heavy Warship.



  • Generic Name: Civic Center.
  • Specific Name: Agora.
    • Class: Civil Centre.
    • History: The most important place in Athens, the Agora served many purposes; it was a place for public speeches and was the stage for civic life and commercial interests.
  • Generic Name: House.
  • Specific Name: Oikos.
    • Class: House.
    • History: Athenian houses from the Classical Age were generally humble yet stylish. During the Hellenistic Age, however, luxurious palaces and estates became commonplace in the rich Hellenistic metropolises like Antioch, Alexandria and Seleucia.
  • Generic Name: Storehouse.
  • Specific Name: Apothēkē.
    • Class: Storehouse.
    • History: Resources and building materials were kept in storehouses.
  • Generic Name: Farmstead.
  • Specific Name: Epoikion.
    • Class: Farmstead.
    • History: Grain wasn't plentiful in Attica, which is why it was carefully stored in granaries, some of it being reserved for times of siege.
  • Generic Name: Field.
  • Specific Name: Agros.
    • Class: Field.
    • History: The Athenians were not renowned as farmers, and preferred to herd livestock or cultivate olives instead.
  • Generic Name: Corral.
  • Specific Name: Epaulos.
    • Class: Corral.
    • History: Basic animal pen. Especially for horses, which were the domain of the truly wealthy in Greece.
  • Generic Name: Dock.
  • Specific Name: Limēn.
    • Class: Dock.
    • History: Greece is a sea country, which is why some of the greatest Hellenic and Hellenistic cities like Ephesus, Corinth, Alexandria and Antioch were built by the sea. It should also be noted that all colonies during the Great Colonisation were thriving port centres, which traded with the local population. Athens itself had a large seaport at Piraeus, which consisted of 3 separate harbors surrounded by mighty walls and easily chained off to prevent amphibious attacks by enemy fleets. As long as Piraeus was unconquered, Athens remained monarch of the seas.
  • Generic Name: Barracks.
  • Specific Name: Stratēgeîon.
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: The Strategion was the main military headquarters, where important decisions were taken and plans for battles discussed by the city's elected Strategoi.
  • Generic Name: Stable.
  • Specific Name: Hippōn.
    • Class: Stable.
    • History: Stables are where horses are tended to.
  • Generic Name: Outpost.
  • Specific Name: Prophylagma.
    • Class: Outpost.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Sentry Tower.
  • Specific Name: Pyrgidion.
    • Class: Defense Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Palisade.
  • Specific Name: .
    • Class: Palisade.
    • History: A cheap, quick defensive structure constructed with sharpened tree trunks.


  • Generic Name: Forge.
  • Specific Name: Chalkeōn.
    • Class: Forge.
    • History: The earliest Greek smiths worked in copper, then bronze, and then finally iron.
  • Generic Name: Temple.
  • Specific Name: Naos.
    • Class: Temple.
    • History: The Athenians built marvelous temples in order to honour their polytheistic pantheon. While all gods were venerated, Athena specifically was worshiped as the namesake and protector of the city. She was the goddess of wisdom and of war and the daughter of Zeus.
  • Generic Name: Marketplace.
  • Specific Name: Emporion.
    • Class: Market.
    • History: Athens was a center of trade for the Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. The Emporion is the Athenian marketplace in the Athenian port of Piraeus, where commerce and trading occur.
  • Generic Name: Stone Tower.
  • Specific Name: Pyrgion.
    • Class: Defense Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Wall.
  • Specific Name: Teichos.
    • Class: Wall.
    • History: Athens was surrounded by stone walls for protection against enemy raids. Some of these fortifications, like the Athenian Long Walls, for example, were massive structures.
  • Generic Name: Wall Turret.
  • Specific Name: Pyrgos.
    • Class: Wall Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.
  • Generic Name: Gate.
  • Specific Name: Pylai.
    • Class: Gate.
    • History: The Athenian city wall was pierced by numerous gates and posterns of various sizes and importance. The "Sacred Gate" was the gate on the road to Eleusis. Another was the Dipylon Gate, whose name literally means "two-gated".


  • Generic Name: Arsenal.
  • Specific Name: Hoplothēkē.
    • Class: Arsenal.
    • History: .
  • Generic Name: Fortress.
  • Specific Name: Phrourion.
    • Class: Fortress.
    • History: Fortresses were built to guard passes and atop hills in order to command plains and valleys below. One such Athenian fortress, Gyphtokastro, guarded the pass from Attica into Boeotia.


  • Generic Name: Gymnasium.
  • Specific Name: Gymnasion.
    • Class: Gymnasium.
    • Garrison Limit: 10.
    • History: The Gymnasion was a vital place in Athens, where physical exercises were performed and social contacts established.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special: Trains Champion Units.
  • Generic Name: Theater.
  • Specific Name: Theatron.
    • Class: Theater.
    • History: Greek theaters were places where the immortal tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and many other talented dramatists were staged to the delight of the populace. They were instrumental in enriching Hellenic culture.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: When built, all buildings have a +20% territory influence radius.
  • Generic Name: Council Chamber.
  • Specific Name: Prytaneion.
    • Class: Council.
    • Garrison Limit: 5.
    • History: The Prytaneion is the meeting place for the city elders to dine and to make swift decisions.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Trains Athenian heroes and researches a late-game upgrade.
  • Generic Name: Stoa.
  • Specific Name: Stoá.
    • Class: Atlas-only Stoa.
    • Garrison Limit: 10.
    • History: .
    • Special: .
  • Generic Name: Artillery Tower
  • Specific Name: Pyrgíon
    • Class: Atlas-only Artillery Tower.
    • Garrison Limit: 5.
    • History: .
  • Generic Name: Bolt Tower
  • Specific Name: Pyrgíon
    • Class: Atlas-only Bolt Tower.
    • Garrison Limit: 5.
    • History: .


  • Generic Name: Parthenon.
  • Specific Name: Parthenōn.
    • Class: Wonder.
    • History: A colossal temple located at the Acropolis of Athens dedicated to the goddess of wisdom.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Functions as a semi-Temple, healing wounded units within its walls. Researching "Peristatis" gives +20% maximum population limit per Wonder owned.


  • Silver Owls.
    • Specific Name: Argyraglaûkes
    • History: The mines at Laureion in Attica provided Athens with a wealth of silver from which to mint her famous and highly prized coin, The Athenian Owl.
    • Effect: Workers +10% metal gather rate per phase advance.
  • Hellenic Architecture.
    • History: The Greeks used stone construction from early Mycenaean times.
    • Effect: Structures +10% health and +10% capture points.


  • Delian League.
    • Specific Name: Symmachion ton Diloi
    • History: Shortly after the great naval victories at Salamis and Mykale, the Greek city-states instituted the so-called Delian League in 478 BC, whose purpose was to push the Persians out of the Aegean region. The allied states contributed ships and money, while the Athenians offered their entire navy.
    • Effect: Warships construct +25% faster.


  • Infantry: Hoplite Tradition, Archery Training, Conscription, Iphicratean Reforms
  • Cavalry: Horse Racing, Horse Breeding, Conscription
  • Naval: Naval Architects, Reinforced Hull, Experienced Crews
  • Siege: Advanced Siege, Siegecraft, Armor Plating, Military Engineers, Bolt Accuracy
  • Economy:
    • Farming: Wicker Baskets, Iron Plow, Gather Training, Fertilizer
    • Fishing: Fishing Net, Salting Fish
    • Husbandry: Stockbreeding
    • Lumbering: Iron Axe Heads, Stronger Axe, Sharp Axe Heads
    • Quarry: Douloi (Servants), Thêtes (Serfs), Andrapoda (Slaves)
    • Mining: Wedge and Mallet, Shaft Mining, Mines of Laureion (Silver Mining)
    • Gathering: Baskets, Wheelbarrow, Horse-drawn Carts
    • Trade: Trade Caravan, Handicraft, Commercial Treaty
  • Forge: Xiphos, Iron Weapons, Carburization, Improved Fletching, Iron Arrowheads, Trilobate Arrowheads, Spolas, Linothorax, Mail Body Armor, Wooden Shield, Metal Rim, Improved Shield Alloys
  • Healing: Olympic Pantheon, Akadēmia, Sphagia, Hippocratic Oath, Living Conditions, Battlefield Medicine
  • Architecture: Peristylon (Home Garden), Manors
  • Defences: Carrier Pigeons, Nyktophylakes (Sentries), Crenellations, Arrow Shooters, Murder Holes, Sturdy Foundations, Athenian Long Walls
  • Miscellaneous: Cartography, Diaspora, The Loom, Thesmophoria (Fertility Festival), Espionage, Counterintelligence, Dynamis (Will to Fight), Peristasis (Glorious Expansion)


  • Athenian Long Walls.
    • Specific Name: Makra Teichi.
    • History: The Long Walls of Athens were constructed under the auspices of the wily Themistokles and extended 6 km from the city to the port of Piraeus. This secured the city's sea supply routes and prevented an enemy from starving out the city during a siege.
    • Effect: The Athenians can build their stone walls in neutral territory.
  • Iphicratean Reforms.
    • History: Iphicrates revolutionised ancient Greek warfare equipment and tactics. He especially made hoplites and peltasts alike wear lighter armour and wield longer weapons, taking special notice in their training. These reforms influenced the Macedonian model of the foot companions during the conquests of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great.
    • Effect: The Athenian gymnasium, dock, and triremes can train Athenian Marines and Cretan Mercenary Archers.
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