CARTHAGINIAN CIVILISATION PROFILE

by Ken Wood [aka Phoenix-TheRealDeal / tonto_real] Email: ken@0ad.wildfiregames.com. (Arizona, United States of America). 

Historical consultants, translators and contributors:
 Professor Alejandro Carneiro [aka Piteas] (Classical & Antiquity Greco-Romano-Iberico History Studies) (Spain).
 Aviv Sharon [aka Jeru] (Israel).

Contributing concept artists:
 Antonio J. Flamas [aka ajflamas] (Spain);
 Aviv Sharon [aka Jeru] (Israel);
 Jason Bishop [aka Wijitmaker] (Washington, United States of America);
 Marco Giannini [aka Kellian] (Italy). 

Revised by:
Joshua Gilbert [aka Shogun144] (Michigan, United States of America)

UNIT DESCRIPTIONS

INFANTRY

  • Generic Name: Libyan Spearman
  • Specific Name: Səḫīr Ḥanīt
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long Pike or Sarissa type spear.
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Although the Liby-Phoenician soldiers were not themselves citizens of the city of Carthage, they were levied to the armies of Carthage from those Phoenician colonies of modern-day Tunisia and Libya that had been taken over by the Carthaginians upon the demise of the mother cities in the Levant. Those town and cities were not permitted to hold standing armies of their own, having instead to rely upon Carthage for leadership and defense.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the standard Barracks and Civic Center.
  • Generic Name: Gallic Swordsman
  • Specific Name: Səḫīr Ḥerev
    • Class: Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Celtic Hallstatt 'La Tene' culture period long sword.
    • Appearance: See figure 2 in the reference picture below.
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Celts served as mercenaries in Carthaginian armies from the earliest times.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the Celtic Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Italian Swordsman
  • Specific Name: Səḫīr Romaḥ
    • Class: Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos short sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: .
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the Italiote Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Iberian Skirmisher
  • Specific Name: Səḫīr Kidōn
    • Class: Javelinist.
    • Hacker Armament: Javelin (see below).
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Though initially mercenaries hired by the Carthaginians, once the Carthaginian expansion was made into large areas of the Iberian Peninsula, these soldiers became levies imposed by the Carthaginian generals on their "allies".
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the Iberian Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Mauritanian Archer
  • Specific Name: Qešet
    • Class: Archer.
    • Hacker Armament: Bow.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: No armour. Quiver of arrows.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): See reference image below.
    • History: The Mauritanians are said to have supplied good archers to the armies of Carthage. Probably kin of the Berbers. The Romans similarly hired and appreciated Mauritanian archery skills.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function:
      Movement:
      Relatively faster than other Archers.
    • Special: Trained at the standard Barracks and Civic Center.
  • Generic Name: Balearic Slinger
  • Specific Name: Qallāʿ Ibušimi
    • Class: Slinger.
    • Hacker Armament: Three slings and sling bolt pouch; see concept drawing below.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Bare minimum (basic loincloth).
      • Helmet: None at any experience level.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Barefoot, nothing on body to restrict movement; see concept drawing below.
    • History: The Balearic Slinger regiments were a levy from the islands that had been under control of Carthage from the 6th century BCE, supplying 2,000 men. They fired ceramic shot capable of punching through enemy shield and armour and dropping soldiers dead in their tracks. They carried 3 different slings of different lengths which were used to obtain range to target. Much of their skill was due to intense training since childhood.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Rate of Fire: Fast. Movement: Fastest infantry unit in the game (very agile). Attack: Strongest slinger in the game (+1 more than Rhodian Slinger). Accuracy: High.
    • Special:
      • Trained at the Iberian Embassy.
      • Fast Rate of Fire (ROF)
      • Fast Movement speed.
      • Strongest slinger in the game (+1 attack over Rhodian Slingers).
      • High Accuracy.
      • Health penalty (low health to balance).

CAVALRY

  • Generic Name: Iberian Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Ḥayyāl Kidōn Raḫūv
    • Class: Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: The 'Falcata' sword; see concept drawing below.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: As depicted in the reference drawing for figure 1 and/or 3.
      • Helmet: None for basic unit.
      • Shield: Round smallish 'Caetra' shield common to many of the Iberian warriors having a central 'boss', usually of bronze or iron; though the shield was small it was also light and the Iberian units carrying it were very adept in moving it quickly about defensively.
      • Figure(s): See concept drawing below.
    • Mount: As shown in the reference drawing, figure 1.
    • History: Though initially mercenaries hired by the Carthaginians, once the Carthaginian expansion was made into large areas of the Iberian Peninsula, these soldiers became levies imposed by the Carthaginian generals on their "allies".
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the Iberian Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Gallic Mercenary Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Ḥayyāl Ḥerev Raḫūv
    • Class: Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long Celtic Cavalry Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Shirtless with trousers.
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers (bright colours), shirt of mail.
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – Round.
        Advanced – Round.
        Elite – Round.
      • Figure(s): Use the shirtless pants model for the basic, tunic trousers model for advanced, armor and trousers model for the Elite. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck in Advanced and Elite. Soft leather shoes, not boots. Basic could also have long hair.
      • Mount: Typical head gear, 4 horned saddle, no stirrups, severed heads hanging off the saddle in Elite status.
    • History: Like a sword, a horse was a sign of nobility and as a result the Gallic cavalry was often better equipped than the infantry. Armor and helmets were common, while weapons consisted of a large bladed spear and a long slashing sword for close combat. Shields could be round, hexagonal, or oval, but the most common was a regular oval body shield with the top and bottom shorn off. Unlike other horseman, the Celts were not afraid to leap off their mount to fight on foot then climb into the saddle again when possible.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Heavy cavalry.
    • Special: Trained at the Celtic Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Italic Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Ḥayyāl Romaḥ Raḫūv
    • Class: Cavalry Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount: -
      • Figure(s): .
    • History: The Italian allies of Carthage included the various Samnite tribes of the interior hill-country and Italiote Greek colonies along the Southern coast. They provided a much-needed and high-quality cavalry contingent for Hannibal's army.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Trained at the Italiote Embassy.
  • Generic Name: Numidian Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Ḥayyāl Raḫūv Masili
    • Class: Cavalry Javelinist.
    • Hacker Armament: Javelin.
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount: -
    • History: Numidian Cavalry were known to be the fastest, most agile, in the ancient world; the riders rode without bridle or reins, steering their mount with knee pressure and body signals alone. They were the only cavalry that the Romans were unable to adequately deal with.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Good skirmisher and raider.
    • Special:
      • Trained at the standard Barracks and Civic Center.
      • Movement: Fastest cavalry unit in the game.

SUPPORT UNITS

  • Generic Name: Carthaginian Woman
  • Specific Name: Aštāh <ASH-tah> source
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Grecian female dress and hair style was based upon that of the Mauritanians as brought to them via the Phoenicians, thus passing through Carthage.
      • Helmet: No helmet per se, may or may not have headgear as depicted in concept drawings below.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Unlike many ancient cities, Carthage was found by a woman; Queen Dido, hailing originally from Tyre. Carthaginian women were famous for their beauty and were capable of extremely hard physical work. The records written about the Third Punic War mentioned that all citizens of Carthage, including the women, worked incessantly to manufacture weapons and prepare the city for siege. The women even cut their own hair for use in the springs of artillery pieces.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Priestess
  • Specific Name: Kehinit <keh-HI-nit?> source
    • Class: Healer.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: .
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Tanit (also spelled TINITH, TINNIT, or TINT), chief goddess of Carthage, equivalent of Astarte. Although she seems to have had some connection with the heavens, she was also a mother goddess, and fertility symbols often accompany representations of her. She was probably the consort of Baal Hammon (or Amon), the chief god of Carthage, and was often given the attribute "face of Baal." Although Tanit did not appear at Carthage before the 5th century BC, she soon eclipsed the more established cult of Baal Hammon and, in the Carthaginian area at least, was frequently listed before him on the monuments. In the worship of Tanit and Baal Hammon, children, probably firstborn, were sacrificed. Ample evidence of the practice has been found west of Carthage in the precinct of Tanit, where a tofet (a sanctuary for the sacrifice of children) was discovered. Tanit was also worshipped on Malta, Sardinia, and in Spain. There is no other reason for giving the Carthaginians a priestess instead of a priest in 0 A.D., although Tanit was the most popular of their two main gods with the people.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Merchant
  • Specific Name: Mekir source
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: See the illustration reference drawing for the Carthaginian Merchantman, unit following; use the individual with the conical hat standing between two spearmen for the basis; mount the Trader upon a horse.
      • Helmet: Conical hat.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): See reference drawing for Merchantman for typical trader figures standing on beach in front of ship.
      • Mount: Horse.
    • History: While not as important as trade by sea, the Carthaginians did value the land trade.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Fishing Boat
  • Specific Name: Noon-Mašōt (NOON mah-SHOAT)
    • Class: Fishing Ship.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Fishing for the Carthaginians was much the same as it was for the Phoenicians from whom they were descended. Being primarily a sea power, fishing was one of Carthage’s primary means of food supply. The main fishing boat used was a medium sized (about 20 feet) row and sail boat.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Capacity: 1; support, infantry
    • Function: Gathering: Only method of collecting meat from fish.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Merchantman
  • Specific Name: Seḥer source
    • Class: Merchantman.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: The drawing below is the ship that I want modeled for the Carthaginian Merchantman (skinned differently also for the Iberians).
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: The entire purpose of the Phoenicians/Carthaginians? was to conduct trade and commerce principally upon the sea (though not limited to that as far as Carthage was concerned).
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Movement: Fastest Merchantman in the game.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Bireme
  • Specific Name: Du-Mašōt (doo mah-SHOAT)
    • Class: Bireme.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: See reference picture below.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: The Phoenicians/Carthaginians? were the first to develop 'bireme technology' by taking the pentakonter and 'cutting it in half' then stacking two rows of oarsmen tiered atop the other, producing a ship half the length that was more maneouvreable and faster in the water. The ram section at the bow was built to look like a sea monster swimming through the water in order to terrorise superstitious potential competitors. They were also fed tall tales of such denizens in a propaganda effort to mislead and frighten off others who might consider following them into unknown waters.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Fastest Bireme in the game.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Trireme
  • Specific Name: Tlat-Mašōt (tlat mah-SHOAT)
    • Class: Trireme.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Triremes (and later Quinqueremes) were a longtime mainstay of the Phoenician/Carthaginian? fleet that was the largest maintained on the Mediterranean Sea, also ranging out into the Atlantic as protection for its Merchantmen. The Athenian Greeks were the only ones to build a faster ship of this type.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Movement: 2nd fastest (after Athenians) of the Triremes.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Quinquereme
  • Specific Name: Ḥameš-Mašōt (ha-MESH mah-SHOAT)
    • Class: Quinquereme.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: See reference picture below; mount onager atop cabin toward the stern poopdeck.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: The Carthaginians were long in the forefront of ship technology, maintaining the largest fleet in the Mediterranean for centuries. Their Quinquereme was also the best on the water and essentially unchallengeable until the Romans built a Quinquereme largely from Carthaginian design (having 'captured' a grounded ship of its type) then later developed the corvus boarding ramp for it.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Movement: Fastest of the Quinqueremes. Very limited in number (probably through expense).
    • Special: -

SIEGE

  • Generic Name: Carthaginian Ballista
  • Specific Name: None
    • Class: Catapult.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: See reference picture below.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: The Carthaginians are known for having had many siege weapons.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Carthaginian Scorpion
  • Specific Name: None
    • Class: Bolt shooter.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: See reference picture below.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: The Carthaginians are known for having had many siege weapons.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -

CHAMPION UNITS

  • Generic Name: Sacred Band of Ba'al.
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: Champion Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long hoplite spear.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: The Sacred Band represented a group of Carthaginian Citizens that had volunteered for military service. The Hellenes spoke well of this battalion for its service during the Sicilian Wars in the 4th Century BC, and offered praise for their valor, courage, discipline, and the excellence of their arms and armor. The Sacred Band gained its name for its religious devotion. These men fought as hoplites in all confirmed historical occurrences of this unit.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy spear infantry. Good for holding the main battle line.
    • Special: Trained at the Temple.
  • Generic Name: Sacred Band of Astarte
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: Champion Cavalry.
    • Hacker Armament: Long cavalry spear.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: The Sacred Band of Astarte was an elite cavalry regiment recruited from amongst the upper class of the city.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy Cavalry.
    • Special: Trained at the Temple.
  • Generic Name: War Elephant
  • Specific Name: Pil Malḥamit (peel mal-ha-MEET?) source for "battle/war"
    • Class: Champion Elephant.
    • Hacker Armament: Ram (Crushing impact tusk attack, effective against structures).
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount: The elephant.
    • History: By far the most famous of Carthaginian weapons was the small, ugly, and now extinct, North African forest elephants. Going into battle without a war tower carrying only a driver, Carthaginian war elephants were used as terror weapons: horses could not stand their smell, inexperienced troops were frightened, and the havoc they could cause was immense. Yet by the time of the Second Punic War elephants were at the end of their time. Armies had learned the weaknesses of the giant beasts, specifically how to hamstring and confuse them. More often than not a war elephant could be just as dangerous to its own side as the enemy.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Hitpoints: High. Movement: Slow.
    • Special:
      • Strong against structures, especially city gates.
      • Countered by Skirmishers and Swordsmen.
      • "Damage Frenzy".
      • "Stench" Aura.
      • "Trample Damage" Aura.

HEROES

  • Generic Name: Hannibal Barca
  • Specific Name: Ḥannibaʿal Baraq
    • Class: Hero Elephant.
    • Hacker Armament: Ram (Crushing impact tusk attack, effective against structures).
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount: Towered Syrian war elephant.
    • History: Carthage's most famous son. Hannibal Barca was the eldest son of Hamilcar Barca and proved an even greater commander than his father. Lived 247-182 BC. While he ultimately lost the Second Punic War, his victories at Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae, and the feat of crossing the Alps have secured his position as among the best tacticians and strategists in history.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Strategic Tactician.
    • Special:
      • "Tactician" Aura (All allied units +15% attack within vision range of him.)
      • "Strategic" Aura (The player can see changes within the fog of war, e.g when new buildings are built or resources used up, while Hannibal lives.)
  • Generic Name: Hamilcar Barca
  • Specific Name: Ḥimelqart Baraq
    • Class: Hero Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount: Horse.
    • History: Father of Hannibal and virtual military dictator of Carthage. Hamilcar Barca was a soldier and politician who excelled along his entire career. Lived 275-228 BC. While overshadowed by his sons, Hamilcar was great general in his own right, earning the nickname Baraq or Barca for the lightning speed of his advance.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: .
    • Special:
      • "Baraq" Aura (All of the player's units +15% movement speed [walk and run, but not charge] while he lives.)
  • Generic Name: Maharbal
  • Specific Name: same
    • Class: Hero Cavalry Spearman and Javelnist.
    • Hacker Armament: Cavalry Spear.
    • Ranged Armament: Javelins.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: -
      • Shield: -
      • Figure(s): .
      • Mount: Horse.
    • History: Maharbal was Hannibal Barca's "brash young cavalry commander" during the 2nd Punic War. He is credited with turning the wing of the legions at Cannae resulting in defeat in which 30,000 of 50,000 Romans were lost, as well as significant contributions to the winning of many other battles during the 2nd Punic War. He is known for having said, after the battle of Cannae, "Hannibal, you know how to win the victory; just not what to do with it."
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Cavalry Commander.
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (+50% Cavalry charge attack within vision range of him)

NEW UNIT TRAITS

  • Damage Frenzy: If the unit loses 75% of its hitpoints, it will randomly attack nearby units, friend or foe, other than Priestesses. This effect can only be overcome by restoring the unit's lost health.
  • "Stench" Aura: As with camels, cavalry units are spooked by elephants, and prove less effective when in range of them.
  • "Trample Damage" Aura: As with other elephant units, causes passive crush damage to nearby enemy units through trampling.

CIV CENTRE UNITS

  • Melee Infantry: Libyan Spearman (Spearman).
  • Ranged Infantry: Mauritanian Archer (Archer).
  • Cavalry: Numidian Cavalry (Cavalry Javelinist).

FORBIDDEN CLASSES

  • Cavalry Archer.
  • Ram (War Elephant serves as ram).

STRUCTURE DESCRIPTIONS

VILLAGE

  • Generic Name: House
  • Specific Name: Bet
    • Class: House.
    • History: Housing was generally built of ‘adobe’ or sandstone then plastered with stucco. Flat roofs predominate, few windows, arched doorways in evidence, kind of a blend of Achaemenian and Mediterranean styles with some tiled roofs. In the biggest cities, especially Carthage and such as Utica, housing was in flat-roofed structures rising as high as 6 and 7 stories (two-storied would be sufficient).
  • Generic Name: Estate
  • Specific Name: Aḥuzāh (ah-hoo-ZAH)
    • Class: Farmstead.
    • History: Although there must have been many small farms as well, when the Carthaginians expanded into the hinterland, most farms and orchard establishments were created by the wealthy segment of society that became known as the landowners, and the resulting estates were mostly worked by ‘almost enslaved’ Liby-Phoenicians, Numidians, and whomever they could get.
  • Generic Name: Field
  • Specific Name: Šadd (Shod)source
    • Class: Field.
    • History: Carthage was famed, and rightly so, for its advanced agricultural techniques. After the Punic Wars, Rome copied those techniques for its own farms.
  • Generic Name: Corral
  • Specific Name: Rēfet (REH-fet)
    • Class: Corral.
    • History: The Carthaginians well understood the value of cavalry, with Iberia and North Africa both being good horse country. Elephants were likewise highly prized animals.
  • Generic Name: Storehouse
  • Specific Name: Maḥṣabah
    • Class: Storehouse.
    • History: Nothing really special here.
  • Generic Name: Carthaginian Outpost.
  • Specific Name: ?.
    • Class: Outpost.
    • History: .
  • Generic Name: Palisade.
  • Specific Name: ?.
    • Class: Palisade.
    • History: A cheap, quick defensive structure constructed with sharpened tree trunks.

TOWN

  • Generic Name: Civic Centre
  • Specific Name: Merkāz (mare-CAUSE)
    • Class: Civic Centre.
    • History: Carthage!
  • Generic Name: Commercial Port
  • Specific Name: Namel (naw-MEL)
    • Class: Dock.
    • History: The outer port of Carthage was used to moor and off-load its considerable merchant marine. The Commercial Port constructs Fishing Boats and Merchant Ships, while the Naval Shipyard constructs and services warships.
  • Generic Name: Temple
  • Specific Name: Maqdaš (mock-DOSH?)
    • Class: Temple.
    • History: TBD.
  • Generic Name: Barracks
  • Specific Name: Maḥanēt (maw-haw-NET)
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: The Carthaginians usually housed their soldiers in either great integrated military complexes built into the walls (like in Carthage itself) or in fortified structures not dissimilar from castles. These ranged from garrison armories to citadels large enough to maintain elephants corrals. The Carthaginian barracks will only train citizen-soldiers, while the Embassy will train all mercenary soldiers.
  • Generic Name: Blacksmith
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: Blacksmith.
    • History: <?>.
  • Generic Name: Market
  • Specific Name: Šūq (shouk)
    • Class: Market.
    • History: Trade centres were probably just big sheds or structures surrounding a ‘market’ area or in a wharf area of a port, but it is felt that the Achaemenian concept below will serve the purpose of the game admirably.
  • Generic Name: Defense Tower
  • Specific Name: Mijdil source
    • Class: Defense Tower.
    • History: Possibly used as outposts.
  • Generic Name: Carthaginian City Wall
  • Specific Name: Jdar source
    • Class: Wall.
    • History: The Carthaginians built what are referred to as “triple walls” to fortify some of their cities; as triple walls aren’t a practical construct for 0 A.D, the construction of the inner wall is to be used. This wall served not only as a defensive structure but had barracks and stables integrated right into it, and raised towers at intervals. Fodder for elephants and horses, and arms were stored onsite. The ground level consisted of housing for elephants, the second level for horses, and the third level as barracks for the troops. In Carthage alone, 200 elephants, a thousand horses and 15,000~30,000 troops could be housed within the city walls. As shown in the reference drawing, there was also a ditch at the base in front of the wall. These walls were typically built of large blocks of sandstone hewn from deposits nearby, and were never breached by invaders.
    • Special:
      • Footprint: Taller and thicker than any other walls in the game.
  • Generic Name: Wall Tower.
  • Specific Name: Mijdil-šaʿar (MIJ-dil SHAW-arr)
    • Class: Gate.
    • History: The tower sections constituted a 4th level where they rose up to provide even higher firing level platform than that of the top of the wall run.
    • Special:
      • Footprint: Taller and larger than any wall tower in the game.
      • Garrison: 10. Carthaginian wall towers can garrison twice as many troops than all other wall towers.
      • Sally Port: Units may use the Wall Tower as a sally port to exit the town's curtain of walls without having to use the standard gate (which is vulnerable to invasion). They may only do this in small groups of 5 or less and must first be garrisoned into the tower from within the city.

CITY

  • Generic Name: Blockhouse Fort
  • Specific Name: Ḥamet (ha-MET?)
    • Class: Fortress.
    • History: The Carthaginians built a number of rather ‘monolithic’ blockhouse forts sited at critical locations in North Africa, sometimes also in conjunction with long lengths of wall intended to keep the wilder people of the desert to the south from freely ranging into the ‘civilised’ territories under their direct control.

SPECIAL STRUCTURES

  • Generic Name: Naval Shipyard
  • Specific Name: Cothon
    • Class: SB1.
    • History: Carthage was famous for it's magnificent double harbor, the outer harbor being a port for its merchant marine, the inner harbor being a mooring for its naval fleet. At the center of the inner harbor was a gigantic round structure that could dock dozens of warships, as well as acted as the grand admiral's headquarters.
    • Requirements: Dock.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special:
      • Constructs all Carthaginian warships.
      • May garrison up to 5 ships simultaneously for auto-repair.
      • Very strong, with high Armour and Health.
      • Limited to 3 per player.
  • Generic Name: Celtic Embassy
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: SB2.
    • History: The majority of Carthaginian troops were mercenaries hired from subjugated and allied lands, including Gallic Celts.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special:
      • Trains Celtic mercenary units.
      • Researches all technologies related to mercenaries.
      • Only one "embassy" may exist at a time, either Celtic, Iberian, or Italiote.
  • Generic Name: Iberian Embassy
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: SB3.
    • History: The majority of Carthaginian troops were mercenaries hired from subjugated and allied lands, including Iberians.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special:
      • Trains Iberian mercenary units.
      • Researches all technologies related to Iberian mercenaries.
      • Only one "embassy" may exist at a time, either Celtic, Iberian, or Italiote.
  • Generic Name: Italiote Embassy
  • Specific Name: ?
    • Class: SB4.
    • History: The majority of Carthaginian troops were mercenaries hired from subjugated and allied lands, including Italians.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special:
      • Trains Italiote mercenary units.
      • Researches all technologies related to Italiote mercenaries.
      • Only one "embassy" may exist at a time, either Celtic, Iberian, or Italiote.

NEW STRUCTURE TRAITS

See Wall and Wall Gate.

FORBIDDEN STRUCTURES

  • None.

CIV BONUSES

  • CB1
    • Name: Triple Walls
    • History: Carthaginians built triple city walls.
    • Effect: Carthaginian walls, gates, and wall towers have 3x the health of a standard wall, but also cost twice as much and take twice as long to build.
  • CB2
    • Name: Roundup
    • History: Not unlike the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa was known as ‘horse country’, capable of producing up to 100,000 new mounts each year. It was also the home of the North African Forest Elephant.
    • Effect: Horses, elephants, and camels can be captured in the wild and placed in the Corral. Unlike normal corralled animals that generate food, the corralled horses, elephants, and camels functions similarly to a relic as in AoK. As long as it/they remain(s) in the Corral, the resource cost of training horse-mounted units (cavalry), War Elephant Champion Units, and camel caravans (traders) is reduced by a fixed amount of –5% per animal corralled appropriate to kind.

TEAM BONUS

  • TB1
    • Name: Trademasters
    • History: The Phoenicians and Carthaginians were broadly known as the greatest trading civilization of the ancient and classical world.
    • Effect: +33% trade profit ‘international’ routes for allies.

TECHNOLOGIES

  • Infantry: Average, except Balearic slingers strongest in the game.
  • Cavalry: Average, except Numidian cavalry javelinists fastest in the game.
  • Naval: Strong.
  • Siege: Average, except no land ram, but War Elephant has a sieging capability.
  • Economy:
    • Farming: Strong, all standard including animal husbandry.
    • Mining: Average.
    • Lumbering: Average.
    • Hunting: Average.
    • Land Trade: Average.
    • Naval Trade: Strong.
  • Architecture:
    • Defenses: Average, except Carthaginian Wall strongest in the game.

SPECIAL TECHNOLOGIES

  • ST1
    • Name: Exploration.
    • History: Nobody knew better than the Carthaginians where in the ancient world they were going and going to go; their merchant traders had ‘missions’ to everywhere.
    • Effect: All ships and Merchants +25% LOS.
  • ST2
    • Name: Colonization.
    • History: Carthaginians established many trading centres as colonies and ultimately held dominion over 300 cities and towns in North Africa alone.
    • Effect: Construction time reduced by half for Civic Centres and Houses.

COLLECTION OF PUNIC WORDS

  • mashal = officer
  • mëpaqad = another word for 'officer' You can use for the Sacred Band.
  • halats = soldiers
  • Balearic slingers = ibushimim (people from Ibiza) because Ebussus, in Ibiza, was the main city of the balearic islands.
  • qesheth = archer
  • hets = arrow
  • hatsats = arrows
  • re'shith saasat = Calvary Chief
  • mynkd= emperator, Great Chief
  • masilim = numidians
  • masil=numidian
  • hayaat = animals (Curiosly, we don´t know the carthaginian name for elephant) but in ancient hebrew was 'Pil'
  • kahan = priest
  • hayl = army
  • mahanët = campament
  • mal'ak = messenger
  • barzel = iron
  • magen = shield
  • ariwim! = lions! :-)
  • baal barak = Baal bless you!
  • Libanun = Phoenicia
  • hemyt = Walls
  • hers= artisan, worker

This is sourced from an e-mail from Prof. Carneiro of May 10, 2003.

Last modified 11 months ago Last modified on Nov 9, 2016, 9:41:32 AM