CELTIC CIVILISATION PROFILE

by Jason Bishop. Email: jason@wildfiregames.com and Anthony McKinley. Email: tlmis@hotmail.com. 
Edited by Joshua Gilbert Email: shogun144@gmail.com

UNIT DESCRIPTIONS

QUOTE

  Notes about appearances for all Celtic units: 

  Clothing was checkered, speckled, striped, multi-coloured, plaid.

  Colours:
  Yellow/Black – Subjects.
  Grey/Brown/Red – Nobles.
  Purple/Blue – Kings.
  No more than one colour at a time – Slaves.

INFANTRY

  • Generic Name: Celtic Spearman
  • Specific Name: Gaeroa
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Heavy Spear.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Shirtless with trousers.
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers (bright colours), shirt of mail.
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – Oval.
        Advanced – Oval.
        Elite – Oval.
      • Figure(s): Use the tunic trousers model for basic and advanced, the armour trousers model for the Elite. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck optional in advanced and Elite. Soft leather shoes, not boots. Basic could also have long hair.
    • History: The main weapon of most Celtic warriors was the spear. Spears came in great variety with many specialized heads for fighting various types of enemies, hunting, and parade decoration. A spearman in a Celtic society was not inherently low class though; spears were associated with numerous deities and heroes. Spearmen are noted several times of fighting in phalanxes and Celtic art depicts them sometimes standing in what would later be recognized as a shieldwall, probably for when they were holding a position.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Skirmisher
  • Specific Name: Baguada
    • Class: Javelinist.
    • Ranged Armament: Light Spear.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Trousers and tunic (earth tones).
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers only (bright colours).
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – No shield.
        Advanced – Round shield.
        Elite – Oval shield.
      • Figure(s): Use the tunic trousers model for basic and advanced, the shirtless trousers model for the Elite. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck optional in Advanced and Elite. Soft leather shoes, not boots. Basic could also have long hair.
    • History: Baguada means 'guerrilla'; an irregular combatant. Skirmishers, raiders, pirates, etc., would fit under such a designation. Such men were extremely common in Celtic armies. While positions were best held by dedicated spearmen standing in an ordered line and wall, the duty of softening an enemy, and even breaking weaker enemy positions, such as militia, would go to men carrying huge numbers of additional javelins. So many javelins did Celts bring with them, they were said in at least one instance in Galatia to 'charge following a black shadow so great sunlight is emptied from the sky', a poetic description of the enormous number of missiles they would put into the air preceding their main attack.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: The mainstay of the Celtic military. Moderate Cost, faster than normal training time, moderate armour, above average movement rate, moderate offense.
    • Special: -.
  • Generic Name: Celtic Slinger
  • Specific Name: Iaosae
    • Class: Slinger.
    • Hacker Armament: Long knife or short sword
    • Ranged Armament: Sling.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Trousers only (earth tones).
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers and tunica with padded leather vest (bright colours).
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – No shield.
        Advanced – Small rectangular shield.
        Elite – Round shield.
      • Figure(s): Use the tunic trousers model for basic and advanced, the shirtless trousers model for the Elite. Face would have a large moustache or be clean shaved. Torc around neck in Advanced and Elite. Barefoot at first, then shoes or boots. Basic could also have long hair.
    • History: Sling bullets are found in enormous numbers in Celtic sites, made of lead, though clay bullets would also have been used. Slings figure prominently in Celtic myth, and were not associated with any sense of shame. To the contrary, the great skill needed to use a sling well was highly rewarded and favored, so they found much more use in Celtic society for a ranged weapon than bows, outside of specific tribes. The god Lugos, in Irish myth Lug, is associated closely with many weapons, among them his sling. Slings were the primary weapon of Celtic hunters as well. In battle, men with slings would mainly be of the middle class, so better equipped than most slingers in other societies for melee. However, the heavy lead bullets so common to them makes their range shorter than average, compensated for by the puncture power of well-made bullets.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Range of the Celtic military. Higher than normal cost for slingers, moderate armour, above average movement rate, good offense, but slightly shorter than average range. Should be less disadvantaged in a melee than equivalents, as Celtic slingers were typically semi-regular combatants.
    • Special: -.

CAVALRY

  • Generic Name: Celtic Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Epos
    • Class: Cavalry Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Shirtless with trousers.
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers (bright colours), shirt of mail.
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – Round.
        Advanced – Round.
        Elite – Round.
      • Figure(s): Use the shirtless pants model for the basic, tunic trousers model for advanced, armor and trousers model for the Elite. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck in Advanced and Elite. Soft leather shoes, not boots. Basic could also have long hair.
      • Mount: Typical head gear, 4 horned saddle, no stirrups, severed heads hanging off the saddle in Elite status.
    • History: Owning a horse was a sign of aristocracy. Although the primary unit in the Celtic army was the infantry, they had great respect for their horses. They honoured their speed and their bravery. They actually assigned two warriors to one horse. When one warrior was tired in battle, they would run back to camp and the other warrior would get on and go fight. Another method was to take their mount and tether it to a stake in the ground then go fight on foot and run back to their horse when they needed to flee. They fought as mercenaries in the Punic wars. Primarily used in ambushes and hit and run tactics. After the fall of Gaul, the Romans used the Gallic warriors and horses to greatly strengthen their army.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Average statistics, except slower speed – predecessor of the medieval knight.
    • Special: Bonus vs. all infantry.
  • Generic Name: War Dog
  • Specific Name: Coun
    • Class: Cavalry Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Teeth.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic - No collar.
        Advanced - Spiked collar.
        Elite - Spiked collar. Body paint.
      • Figure(s): Mastiff - Dog.
    • History: Dogs in Celtic warfare varied in breed and size, but were of key use to Celts, especially in intertribal war, or warring with neighboring Germans. Most famous were the great mastiffs of Britain, eventually adopted by the Romans as a means to replace Molossian hounds and other such animals. To the Celts, these animals were used to flush out ambushers, or disorder an enemy line, or run down missile troops, who could not run faster than the animals.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Fast moving unit. Cheap. Does well against cavalry.
    • Special: Not able to capture female villagers. Bonus vs. wild animals.
  • Generic Name: Raiding Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Gaisaredos
    • Class: Cavalry Javelinist.
    • Ranged Armament: Light Spear.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Shirtless with trousers.
        Advanced – Trousers and tunic (bright colours).
        Elite – Trousers (bright colours), shirt of mail.
      • Helmet:
        Basic – No helmet.
        Advanced – Limed spiky hair.
        Elite – Celtic helmet.
      • Shield:
        Basic – Round.
        Advanced – Round.
        Elite – Hex Dip.
      • Mount: Typical head gear, 4 horned saddle, no stirrups, severed heads hanging off the saddle in Elite status.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Celtic horsemen drawn from the lower- and non-aristocratic warriors were usually not expected to engage in a direct melee while mounted. They would be used to harass enemy columns on the move, supply lines, or foragers, to hamstring enemy movements. This was shown to great effect against Julius Caesar in Britain, where the light British horsemen would harass his operations to forage and his supply. With his own Gallic horsemen stuck in Gaul due to weather, he could not effectively chase them off or prove much threat to these harriers. Their prime use, as such, is hit-and-run attacks, softening an enemy position for superior cavalry and infantry assaults.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Ranged cavalry unit.
    • Special: -

SUPPORT UNITS

  • Generic Name: Celtic Woman
  • Specific Name: Bodu
    • Class: Female Citizen.
    • Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: N/A.
      • Shield: N/A.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: Being a woman in Celtic society was remarkable better than any other social society at this time. Women were viewed largely as equals to men. The woman had control over every piece of property she owned as she came into marriage. If a man was a noble or king, it was also not uncommon for women to take leadership positions if the husband died. Celtic women were said to be fair to look upon, but also as strong as their husbands. Celtic men wealthy enough could have several 'wives', but only he and his 'chosen' wife held duties and rights. For example, children from any secondary spouse were cared for by the husband and his first wife, and the actual blood mother had no legal obligation to the child, since it was considered born of the union of the first two.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: -
    • Special: Harder to capture.
  • Generic Name: Druides
  • Specific Name: Same
    • Class: Healer.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: White long tunic – with ornamental trim.
      • Helmet: N/A.
      • Shield: N/A.
      • Figure(s): Should have an older appearance, staff in hand – Possibly add a hood
    • History: A druid may be one of many different professions; priest, historian, lawyer, judges, teachers, philosophers, poets, composers, musicians, astronomers, prophets, councillors, high craftsmen like a blacksmith, the classes of the 'men of art', and sometimes kings, chieftains, or other politicians. Druids were very hierarchal, with classes and ranks based on the length of their education and what fields they practiced. They learned their trades through mnemonics by way of poetry and songs, as writing was rarely used by Celts outside of prayers on votive objects, or lists of names for migratory records.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Medic.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Merchant
  • Specific Name: Reros
    • Class: Trader.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: -
      • Helmet: N/A.
      • Shield: N/A.
      • Figure(s): See below.
      • Mount: Walking beside a pack horse.
    • History: Celtic merchants possessed a high place in society. While mainly ignoble, the very successful merchants often had a level of wealth that could challenge that of lower nobility. Many even had small private militias to defend their shops. Celtic merchants reached as far as India, and some of their coins even are found as far as west China. Wealth in Celtic society was paramount, and even nobles often had a cadre of merchants personally loyal to them, selling their goods, to keep them rich through various avenues. Key among what they sold to others would be slaves, sold in enormous numbers, as well as metalwork, weaponry, livestock, grain, salted meats, alcohol, linen, stone tiles, ore, gemstones, and wood.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Trading.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Trading Ship
  • Specific Name: Curoca
    • Class: Merchantman.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Small hide boat.
      • Figure(s): See below.
    • History: These very small boats were used mainly for fishing, but they were also used to transport goods and personnel. The shell is wickerwork, covered with animal hides. The boat is round, and can close during a storm. They were used at times for boarding enemy ships, though such work was typically better left to larger all wood ships. Their resilience to ill sea conditions made them good for long travel, but their hide construction could be easily punctured by a weapon, explaining the rarity of their use in combat, even for boarding.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Transport, fast moving, low hit points.
    • Special: Drop the capacity to 6; no fighting capabilities.
  • Generic Name: Gallic Warship
  • Specific Name: Venetic Pontone
    • Class: Trireme.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Visually unknown – we just have this written description: "The Gauls’ [Veneti] ships were made with much flatter bottoms [than Roman ships] to help them ride shallow water caused by shoals or ebb tides. Exceptionally high bows and sterns fitted them for use in heavy seas and violent gales, and the hulls were made entirely of oak, to enable them to stand any amount of shock and rough usage. The cross-timbers, which consisted of beams a foot wide, were fastened with iron bolts as thick as a man’s thumb. The anchors were secured with chains instead of ropes. They used sails of raw hides or thin leather, either because they had no flax and were ignorant of its use, or more probably because they thought that ordinary sails would not stand the violent storms and squalls of the Atlantic and were not suitable for such heavy vessels … adapted for sailing such treacherous and stormy waters. We could not injure them by ramming because they were so solidly built, and their height made it difficult to reach them with missiles or board them with grappling irons. Moreover, when it began to blow hard and they were running before the wind, they weathered the storm more easily; they could bring in to shallow water with greater safety, and when left aground by the tide had nothing to fear from reefs or pointed rocks" – probably barge-like
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: Despite lacking the shipbuilding skills of the "civilized" Mediterranean powers, the flat-bottom ships of the Celts were quite sturdy. The Veneti made especially large vessels, and these were encountered by Caesar during his campaign in Gaul.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Transport, slow moving, very very high hit points.
    • Special: No fighting capabilities unless boarded by enemy ship.
  • Generic Name: Fishing Ship
  • Specific Name: Same
    • Class: Fishing Ship.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: There was two primary kinds of fishing boats used by the Celts, the first was coracle, which was a small semi-circular/concave boat made from wood and leather. The second was the currach, a large (up to 50 feet long) row and sail boat made from wood, band iron, and leather.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: In contrast to hunting, fishing was taken far more seriously by the Celts and was generally viewed as work. All the same, fishing for play was not unheard of.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Capacity: 1; support, infantry
    • Function: Gathering: Only method of collecting meat from fish.
    • Special: -

SIEGE

  • Generic Name: Covered Ram
  • Specific Name: Brado
    • Class: Land Ram.
    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Ram operated by 4 men with no covering.
      • Figure(s): See above.
    • History: Celtic assaults on fortified positions were relegated largely to three methods. Creating a shell of shields and setting fire to gatehouses, sapping, at which they were noted as being most expert by Caesar, and rams, known only from votive inscriptions and some Celtic art.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Lower than normal hit points.
    • Special: -

CHAMPION UNITS

BRITONS

  • Generic Name: Brythonic Champion Longswordsmen
  • Specific Name: Uertamika Kingetoi
    • Class: Super Infantry Unit.
    • Hacker Armament: La Tene Longsword. For a man of this stature should be based on the Kirkburn sword. The hilt of Asbury Scar sword is also good (but not the sword itself).
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Long sleeve tunic, trousers wrapped in leather bands, suit of chainmail. Should be based on the Kirkburn Mail tunic.
      • Helmet: Gallic iron helmet designs are probably good. The Brythonic Celts also made use of leather helmets, so those as well.
      • Shield: The distinctive Brythonic "hide-shaped" shield.
      • Figure(s): Earth tone colours.
    • History: Brythonic chieftains, much like their Gallic counterparts, went to battle with an elite force as their personal bodyguards. This unit represents the best of the foot nobility of that guard. Their specific name, meaning "Superior Warriors", emphasizes the training and superior skills in combat they have obtained. Their equipment is a testament to the standing and seniority these men enjoy.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Very high hack attack. High hack armour. Low HPs and low Pierce armour. Bonus vs. All Spear Units (infantry and cavalry).
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Brythonic Chariot
  • Specific Name: Carbanto
    • Class: Super Cavalry Unit.
    • Hacker Armament: N/A.
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Trousers only – highly painted body with blue paint
      • Helmet: Celtic helmet.
      • Shield: Long Oval.
      • Mount: Two small ponies.
      • Figure(s): Use the tunic trousers armour model. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck. Soft leather shoes, not boots. Add blue body paint - Woad.
    • History: Chariots were employed by the Celts of the British Isle. They were noisy, and intimidating. They were used to attack in motion by running over people, and hurling javelins. However they also were used to quickly deliver and provide escape from the battle as a transport. They were also used to quickly move men to places in the battle line that were weak and losing momentum. The wheels of the chariot were ringed with seamless iron. Chariots saw use on the continent as well, but to a lesser extent. Their most notable continental use may have been at Telamon.
    • Garrison: 4.
    • Function: Fast. Ranged attack.
    • Special: Would be cool if you could run people over… but I doubt it would be possible to implement in the game.

GAULS

  • Generic Name: Gallic Heavy Swordsman
  • Specific Name: Neitos
    • Class: Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Long Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Trousers (bright colours), shirt of mail.
      • Helmet: Celtic helmet.
      • Shield: Hex.
      • Figure(s): Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck. Soft leather shoes, not boots.
    • History: The sword among Celts varies in reputation and commonality. Short-swords, essentially truly just long, broad-bladed daggers, were common, but cheaply made, and most likely the swords referred to as bending after a hard strike, and needing bent back into place. The iron construction of longswords, such as used here, was greatly superior, but also much more expensive. The longsword was primarily a weapon of aristocracy and experienced professional soldiers, who could either afford the weapon, have it made for them by their lord as a reward for service, passed down to them by family, or looted from the field.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Moderate speed and cost. Equal in armour and stronger in attack than your average ultimage CS swordsman.
    • Special: -
  • Generic Name: Gallic Noble Cavalry
  • Specific Name: Brihent
    • Class: Super Cavalry Unit.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear.
    • Ranged Armament: N/A.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Trousers and mail shirt.
      • Helmet: Celtic helmet.
      • Shield: Dip.
      • Figure(s): Use the tunic trousers armor model. Face would either be bearded or have a large moustache. Torc around neck. Soft leather shoes, not boots.
      • Mount: Typical head gear, 4 horned saddle, no stirrups, severed heads hanging off the saddle in Elite status.
    • History: In Gaul, we know of heavy cavalry, possibly predecessors to later knights. They used a Celtic lance overhand, a good shield, and wore good armor. Vercingetorix was famous for having a number of them, but their use long precedes him. Heavy Celtic horsemen are found in graves as early as the 600s, with scale coats. Later, with the advent of mail, their armor would largely change to this. They would be experienced, aristocratic or noblemen, or their retainers equipped in kind. Each man would probably have several personal attendants. Some would be powerful noblemen, such as chiefs and kings. In battle, they would be on par with much of the best heavy cavalry in western Europe, due to superior armor, such as mail armor with additional layers of mail over the vital organs, weapons such as high-quality iron spearheads, swords, and a thong of javelins, giving them versatility, and years of experience and training. Their historical use saw them capable of breaking even well-defended positions, or acting to great effect in flanking maneuvers.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Costly. Strong Armour. Strong Attack.
    • Special: -

HEROES

GALLIC

  • Generic Name: Britomartos
  • Specific Name: Same
    • Class: Hero1.
    • Hacker Armament: Heavy Spear
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: rich and lavished.
      • Helmet: ‘horned’ bronze helmet.
      • Shield: bronzed ornamental/ceremonial shield
      • Figure(s): hero/capped mesh.
      • Mount: NA
    • History: The story of how Marcus Claudius Marcellus killed a Gallic leader at Clastidium (222 BC) is typical of such encounters. Advancing with a smallish army, Marcellus met a combined force of Insubrian Gauls and Gaesatae at Clastidium. The Gallic army advanced with the usual rush and terrifying cries, and their king, Britomartos, picking out Marcellus by means of his badges of rank, made for him, shouting a challenge and brandishing his spear. Britomartos was an outstanding figure not only for his size but also for his adornments; for he was resplendent in bright colours and his armour shone with gold and silver. This armour, thought Marcellus, would be a fitting offering to the gods. He charged the Gaul, pierced his bright breastplate and cast him to the ground. It was an easy task to kill Britomartos and strip him of his armour.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Infantry Spearman
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura TBD
  • Generic Name: Brennos
  • Specific Name: Same
    • Class: Hero2.
    • Hacker/Ranged? Armament: Long Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: ’old’ celtic look.
      • Helmet: plumed heavy helmet.
      • Shield: none
      • Figure(s): hero/capped mesh.
      • Mount: NA
    • History: Brennus is the name which the Roman historians give to the famous leader of the Gauls who took Rome in the time of Camillus. According to Geoffrey, the brothers invaded Gaul and sacked Rome in 390 B.C., "proving" that Britons had conquered Rome, the greatest civilization in the world, long before Rome conquered the Britons. We know from many ancient sources which predate Geoffrey that Rome was indeed sacked, but in 387 not 390, and that the raid was led by a man named Brennos (which was latinized to Brennus), but he and his invading horde were Gallic Senones, not British. In this episode several features of Geoffrey's editing method can be seen: he modified the historical Brennus/Brennos?, created the brother Belinus, borrowed the Gallic invasion, but omitted the parts where the Celts seemed weak or foolish. His technique is both additive and subtractive. Like the tale of Trojan origin, the story of the sack of Rome is not pure fabrication; it is a creative rearrangement of the available facts, with details added as necessary. By virtue of their historical association, Beli and Bran are often muddled with the earlier brothers Belinus and Brennus (the sons of Porrex) who contended for power in northern Britain in around 390 BC, and were regarded as gods in old Celtic tradition.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Infantry Swordsman
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura TBD
  • Generic Name: Vercengetorix
  • Specific Name: Uerkingetorix (woo-kin-geet-o-rix)
    • Class: Hero3.
    • Hacker/Ranged? Armament: Long Sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Chain mail, pants, huge mustache.
      • Helmet: None
      • Shield: None
      • Figure(s): hero/caped mesh.
      • Mount: 4 horned saddle, heads hanging off harness.
    • History: http://wildfiregames.com/0ad/page.php?p=8102
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Cavalry Swordsman
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura TBD

BRITONS

  • Generic Name: Caractacus
  • Specific Name: Karaktakos
    • Class: Hero1.
    • Hacker/Ranged? Armament: Stout Spear.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: padded leather armor, older looking
      • Helmet: plumed helmet.
      • Shield: Hex Shield
      • Figure(s): hero/capped mesh.
      • Mount: NA
    • History: Caractacus, the Roman form, is a simple change from Karaktakos, his actual name, which was printed on his many, many coins. Under this name he is remembered as a fierce defender of Britain against the Romans after their invasion in 43 AD. Son of King Cunobelin of the Catuvellauni tribal confederation, Karaktakos fought for nine years against the Romans with little success, eventually fleeing to the tribes in Wales, where he was defeated decisively. Finally he entered Northern Britain, where was handed over to the Romans. Taken to Rome, Karaktakos was allowed to live by the Emperor Claudius and died in Italy. Tradition states he converted to Christianity when his wife did, but there is nothing known of this as definite. Probably more notable is the matter that he was allowed to live once captured. Roman policy was typically to have such men killed in public displays to celebrate. Karaktakos was brought before the Emperor and Senate at his request to explain himself. What he said is not known for certainty, but Tacitus applies to him a famous speech;

If the degree of my nobility and fortune had been matched by moderation in success, I would have come to this City as a friend rather than a captive, nor would you have disdained to receive with a treaty of peace one sprung from brilliant ancestors and commanding a great many nations. But my present lot, disfiguring as it is for me, is magnificent for you. I had horses, men, arms, and wealth: what wonder if I was unwilling to lose them? If you wish to command everyone, does it really follow that everyone should accept your slavery? If I were now being handed over as one who had surrendered immediately, neither my fortune nor your glory would have achieved brilliance. It is also true that in my case any reprisal will be followed by oblivion. On the other hand, if you preserve me safe and sound, I shall be an eternal example of your clemency.

  • Garrison: 1.
  • Function: Infantry Spearman
  • Special:
    • "Hero" Aura TBD
  • Generic Name: Cunobelin
  • Specific Name: Kunobelinos
    • Class: Hero2.
    • Hacker/Ranged? Armament: Sword
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Colorful clothing, gold neck torc, with cloak.
      • Helmet: Ornate Celtic helmet
      • Shield: Oval
      • Figure(s): Should probably look more like a very rich swordsman.
      • Mount: NA
    • History: Kunobelinos, perhaps better known by the latinized form of Cunobelin, was a powerful ruler centered in the territory around modern day Colchester. Ruling the Catuvellauni from Kamulodunon(better known as Camulodunum), he was a warrior king who conquered a neighboring tribe, the Trinovantes, and was referred to by the Romans as the King of the Britons. The Trinovantes, while having been Roman allies, were not able to call for Roman aide, as they were conquered shortly after the Roman's own disaster in Germania. Kunobelinos died of disease after subjugating the great majority of the southern half of Britain (his coins were being minted as far as the borders of what would become Wales). When he died, his son Togdumnos replaced him, who died in battle with the Romans, and was subsequently replaced by his brother, Karatakos. It is an irony that it was his third son that initially invited this Roman reprisal. Kunobelinos seems to have been indifferent to the Romans. He traded with them freely, but had few qualms subjugating known Roman allies, and even sent Adminius as a fosterling to be educated in Roman Gaul. This accounted for Adminius's friendships among the Romans, and he was given lordship over the Cantaci, who inhabited Kent, by his father. This area was the prime area of Roman influence and trade in Britain, and he shrewdly observed his youngest son's friendship with powerful Roman and Gallo-Roman politicians and traders would be of use administrating the region. His other sons though had no love for the Romans, and when Kunobelinos died, Togdumnos, now king, arrested, executed, or expelled numerous Roman sympathizers, including his own brother Adminius, and the deposed Atrebates king, Verica, who appealed to their connections in the Roman Empire for aide in recovering their lands. Kunobelinos in his own time though was possibly one of the greatest of all British kings. He conquered huge portions of land from originally ruling over only four minor tribes in a confederation, the Catuvellauni, and achieved recognition as king of Britain. This recognition was so great that tribes in Cambria even came to assist his sons against the Romans and their British allies, and Kunobelinos was held up by the post-Roman Britons as one of their great heroes; a conqueror and uniter of petty kingdoms, something the post-Roman Britons or Romano-British sorely needed.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Infantry Swordsman
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura TBD
  • Generic Name: Boudicca
  • Specific Name: Same
    • Class: Hero3.
    • Hacker/Ranged? Armament: Light Spear
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Dress, Red hair, Leather armor.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Female gown.
      • Mount: Two white pony horses.
    • History: Ammianus Marcellinus described how difficult it would be for a band of foreigners to deal with a Celt if he called in the help of his wife. For she was stronger than he was and could rain blows and kicks upon the assailants equal in force to the shots of a catapult. Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, was said to be 'very tall and terrifying in appearance; her voice was very harsh and a great mass of red hair fell over her shoulders. She wore a tunic of many colours over which a thick cloak was fastened by a brooch. Boudicca had actually at first been a Roman ally, along with her husband, Prasutagus, king of the Iceni. Prasutagus had been a close Roman ally after a brief uprising, respected as being forethinking even by his former enemies, now allied Romans, and free to rule his kingdom as their native tradition dictated, except in one case. Prasutagus, realizing he was going to die, agreed upon a will with his wife and subordinates; his daughters would inherit the physical running of the territory, under Boudicca's stewardship until they were adults, and the Emperor of Rome would have overlordship, collecting taxes and being allowed to request military aide. Much the same situation as he already held. The problem lay in that the Romans did not recognize female heirs, and thus asserted, upon Prasutagus's death, that only the Emperor's claim to the kingdom of Icenia was valid. They further noted it was regular Roman practice to only allow a client kingdom to be independent for the lifetime of the initial king, such as had occured in Galatia. The Empire formally annexed the kingdom, and began extracting harsh taxes immediately, citing that Prasutagus was indebted to the Romans, having taken several loans during his lifetime that he had failed to repay. Boudicca's complaint about this treatment and the defiance of her deceased husband's will was met with brutality; Roman soldiers flogged her, and her daughters, only children, were raped. Boudicca and her subjects were infuriated at the disgrace done to their queen and the children. With the Roman governor of Britain engaged with the druids in Cambria, now Wales, Boudicca was able to attract more followers from outside the Iceni, as they were hardly the only British tribe growing rapidly disallusioned with the Romans. Boudicca and her army laid waste to three cities, routed a Roman legion, and called on the memory of Arminius, a German who had routed the Romans from his lands, and their own ancestors who had driven off Caesar near a century earlier. Boudicca was defeated by a major tactical blunder in the Battle of Watling Street, leading to much of her force being slaughtered as they could not withdraw to safety. Boudicca herself escaped, and then slew her daughters, and then herself, to avoid further shame at Roman hands.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Cavalry Javelinist.
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura TBD

NEW UNIT TRAITS

None

CIV CENTRE UNITS

  • Melee Infantry: Celtic Spearman.
  • Ranged Infantry: Skirmisher.
  • Cavalry: Celtic Cavalry.

FORBIDDEN CLASSES

  • Swordsman.
  • Archer.
  • Cavalry Archer.
  • Bireme.
  • Quinquereme.
  • Onager.
  • Lithibolos.

STRUCTURE DESCRIPTIONS

QUOTE

Note: From my research, the Celts didn’t have specific structures that performed a specific function.
Typically the structure was joined with a house (such as a blacksmith, market, or barn).
But, because we are going to have to take some historical liberties, we will have to ‘make up’ some structures to fit the template of the game

VILLAGE

  • Generic Name: House
  • Specific Name: Tekes
    • Class: House.
    • History: Celtic homes varied between round wattle and daub homes, common most in the British Isles and northern Iberia, and wood-and-stone longhouses. Later, large tenements and apartments were built. Within a city, houses would be of excellent quality, many having running water. Even the later tenements in cities, intended for poor laborers who worked within the walls, typically had a communal running water connection, all connected to a central cistern that collected rainwater, purified through a granite sieve. These were most common in Gaul, though, as Britain was typically several decades behind in the south, and even a century or more the further north one went, as far as Celtic development went. An underground cess system would also connect these homes, based on modern archaeological findings. However, this is only within the cities. Outside, people lived on maintained, permanent farming estates; small villages built around a powerful aristocrat or low noble's home, with people who worked his fields, or in local shops and businesses catering to the inhabitants of the estate. While in both city and farming village houses often had basements, here they would lack running water, and are often found near running water, or irrigated in streams through the village for ease of water collection and rubbish disposal. Each home typically has a small shrine, to pray to a local god, the spirits of the home, and to the souls of ancestors, as well as cups. If tradition maintained in Gaelic and Brythonic cultures, these were for offerings to spirits, giving them wine or beer in exchange for good fortune, or at least to not be tormented by the less friendly among them. In Gaul, homes would vary between one and five rooms on average, discluding the basement. Upscale homes of the non-aristocratic class may have been fortunate enough to have a kitchen. All would probably have a hearth or firepit, and some simple floor matresses. Beds, while known among Celts, were largely only for the very wealthy, as their construction often included finally crafted wood and metal. There would also be, based on iron bands, be two washtubs, one for bathing, one for clothing, and soap was a common property item, crafted and sold in huge amounts, used for both bathing and washing clothing. The common Celtic family would have a fairly good standard of living; most Celts ate a handsome portion of meat compared to most contemporary societies, even if it was just offal for slaves and 'serfs'. Beer and mead was common, and recent examination even finds 'branding', implying mass production of alcohols from various families and regions, meaning the market could easily have been saturated, making the cost low enough even for a family of debtors able to afford a good cask of beer from time to time. Pets were common among Celts, particularly dogs, who would sleep inside with the family. Livestock would not though, as occured in some medieval societies, as Celts were known to build large, communal barns for the safe-keeping of everyone in the village's livestock, except for the headman and his family, who had their own barns and fields for the private care of their livestock.
  • Generic Name: Farmstead
  • Specific Name: Simbalos
    • Class: Farmstead.
    • History: Farming typically revolved around small hamlets and farmsteads with enclosed rectilinear fields - each having areas of pasture, farmland and wood. Ploughing became more efficient with the arrival of the iron share and a two field rotation was introduced; crops one year followed by a fallow that was grazed by livestock. This lead to surprisingly high yields and fuelled population growth. Storage of crops was either in pits or in raised stores and harvest was over several months - weeds, grain and then straw. Farms would be worked mainly by a combination of freemen who aren't on campaign, 'serfs', male and female, and a huge number of slaves. Nobles would not engage in this activity, as Celtic nobles and other 'sacred' classes were forbidden manual labor, unless it was for war, or was a 'high craft'.
  • Generic Name: Field
  • Specific Name: Varmo
    • Class: Field.
    • History: Wheat and barley were the main crops of the bronze age being grown for flour, straw, animal feed and malt for alcoholic drinks. Hay was grown for animal feed while straw was used for bedding, thatching and winter fodder. In the iron age, the range of crops grown had widened considerably since the early bronze age. Although the most important were wheat and barley, oats, tic beans, vetch, peas, rye, flax and fat hen were regularly grown. Celts also notably created many new strains of old crops, some now extinct, some still in use. Celts were excellent farmers, and the idea of them as savage barbarians has little bearing in many cases, farming particularly. Examining Celtic farming techniques, one finds a people who knew how to crossbreed strains, or enhance existing strains to adapt to new conditions. Celts particularly grew huge amounts of wheat, both as animal feed and for many breads they ate with their meals, or as entire meals combined, such as sausages and vegetables baked into bread, good for one on the move. A wealthy Celtic farmer could even potentially buy his way into nobility by selling his crops. Key to Celtic farming though were two classes. The Celtic equivalent of 'serfs' were not so constrained as later feudal equivalents, but were indebted to the farm's owner, and worked his fields to pay off these debts, which were increased by the farm's owner paying for their home, and a small pay for which the worker could buy necessities. The other would be slaves. Celtic slaves could not be harmed excessively, had to be fed, clothed, and housed, but could be traded as any other commodity, though while in service, they were paid, if only a tiny amount. Slaves' children would be 'part-slaves', and work the fields when grown enough, until they paid off their life price, then allowed free, though presumably most merely became serfs, and it'd be several more generations before they were freemen of the tribe.
  • Generic Name: Corral
  • Specific Name: Cavalidos
    • Class: Corral.
    • History: Woven fences made from coppicing which are the tender shoots regrown from the stool of a tree after you chop it. Bronze age: Cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. Cattle had always been important with pre-historic farmers but through the bronze age there was an increase in the importance of sheep and goats. These would have been kept for wool, milk and meat. The type of sheep were very similar to the Soay breed of today. Pigs and wild boar remains have been found in farmsteads. In the iron age: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, poultry, geese and ducks. Horses were a new arrival in the farmsteads but they were not used for work so much as symbols of status. Most Celtic ranched equines were actually ponies. Large horses were for war or travel by established, wealthy people. Ponies were used for farming, as well as for war by the lower classes, who could not afford actual horses. Celts were also notable for crossbreeding 'similar' animals, creating the earliest mules in Europe, probably for farm labor and as pack animals.
  • Generic Name: Mill
  • Specific Name: Sengula
    • Class: Mill.
    • History: In southern parts of the country, most of the wildwood had been cleared and given way to farming or coppice management. In northern parts, or where the ground was particularly unsuitable for agriculture, wildwood remained, but under constant threat. Land around the farmsteads was usually enclosed by hazel fencing or hedging. A major part of Celtic soldiery was derived by guards of stock buildings, barns, ranches, and fields. All of these were under threat from neighboring tribal raids, so trained combatants, not having wars to go to fight in, would work to guard them, and run off raiders. Further, these acted as doles during famines or wars. In a famous example of them being stretched between the two purposes, Vercingetorix retreated to Alesia, but their stores had been almost emptied to feed his army, and food was already scarce due to a poor season. The inability to provide food for the army and the city led to a terrible fate for the city's inhabitants, who were sent out to the Roman siegeworks, hoping to be taken by the Romans, possibly enslaved, but at least given food. The Romans left them to starve, hoping the defenders would reopen the gates, allowing an assault, but the Celts under Vercingetorix realized the plot, and they too left the non-combatants to starve to death. The soldiers were starved out before a second relief force could come to aide them due to the low stores, already earlier being bled so much, and Vercingetorix surrendered as to save them from the fate that had already met the citizens of Alesia.
  • Generic Name: Celtic Tower
  • Specific Name: Tur
    • Class: Scout Tower.
    • History: Towers have a great mythic element in Celtic societies. Towers are found, fragmented as they may be, sometimes. The largest towers were the great caps to fortresses in Britain and Ireland, but towers are found in Celtic art on the continent. The most common were probably just to keep watch on places, as most remains are found along trade roads.

TOWN

  • Generic Name: Civic Centre
  • Specific Name: Briga
    • Class: Civic Centre.
    • History: Briga in the language of the Gauls and southern Britons meant both 'hill' and 'town'. This is not mere coincidence; Celtic towns were built on hills for natural defenses, enhanced by earthworks and walls. The center of the town was typically at the hilltop. It would be a dwelling for the local leader, as well as lodging for his servants, his small private armory, an audience hall for discussing matters; political, legal, military, and economic.
  • Generic Name: Dock
  • Specific Name: Nembalos
    • Class: Dock.
    • History: Major Celtic ports existed in Armorica, two in southern Britain, two in Ireland, and several in southern Gaul.
  • Generic Name: Temple
  • Specific Name: Nemeton
    • Class: Temple.
    • History: Celtic temples were complex affairs and seperate from hospitals and asylums. However, if this is meant to be a temple, the Gallic temple should appear similar to a Hellenic temple, but made of stone and oak wood, and wood pillars, but no walls, elevated about four feet off the ground, with a votive pool near it. A maintained grove would be within the complex as well, which would be fenced off and surrounded with a ditch. A maintained British temple was typically a round wood building with an opening in the center through which grew an oak or yew tree.
  • Generic Name: Barracks
  • Specific Name: Gwersyllty
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: All able-bodied male Celts were expected to heed their liege lord's call to battle when need arose.
  • Generic Name: Blacksmith
  • Specific Name: Amoridas
    • Class: Blacksmith.
    • History: Figured to have it represent an armory; these were common, and not all Celts (truthfully, not even most) had to provide their own weapons. Just, they had to provide their own GOOD weapons and armor, but mass-produced spears and javelins and shields were distributed freely at need. The possession of a armory by the local lord was considered quite prestigious among the Celts, especially the larger examples found in Gaul that could maintain armies.
  • Generic Name: Market
  • Specific Name: Merras Tekesa
    • Class: Market.
    • History: Efficient farming led to food surpluses and a developing social hierarchy through the period with administration and power centred on the hill forts. Trade would have been buoyant with Europe; exported corn, cattle hides, tin, gold and iron in exchange for wine and olive oil. The first coins appeared although they were more items of wealth and status than trade. There is evidence too of standardised pottery and this suggests that weights and measures were controlled to provide consistency in trade.
  • Generic Name: Gallic Wall
  • Specific Name: Visila
    • Class: Wall.
    • History: The Romans called this wall "Murus Gallicus". Translated, it means "Gaulish wall". It was extremely resistant to assault by battering ram. Julius Caesar described a type of wood and stone wall, known as a Murus Gallicus, in his account of the Gallic Wars. These walls were made of a stone wall filled with rubble, with wooden logs inside for stability. Caesar noted how the flexibility of the wood added to the strength of the fort in case of battering ram attack.
    • Special:
      • Turf Resistance: Higher resistance to Ram attacks, but more susceptible to ranged siege and fiery attacks than conventional stone walls.
      • Bank Protection: Ranged units can walk up to the bank of the wall and attack from above, but without the protection of wall towers. Due to their limited range attacks, they will have to leave the safety of the base and and meet in the open any opponent attacking from a distance.

CITY

BRITONS

GAULS

SPECIAL STRUCTURES

  • Generic Name: Flour Mill
  • Specific Name: Melonas
    • Class: SB1.
    • History: The Celts developed the first rotary flour mill.
    • Requirements: Farmstead.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Increases food production by 10% within its aura. No techs, no unit training, no garrisoning. Non-cumulative.
  • Generic Name: Kennel
  • Specific Name: None
    • Class: SB2.
    • History: Celts occasionally used war dogs in battle to frighten the enemy and disrupt their discipline.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: Town.
    • Special: Train War Dogs, which are cheap and are good for hunting and massed attacks.

Celtic word for quern = brauon (rotary mill)

NEW STRUCTURE TRAITS

See Melonas.

FORBIDDEN STRUCTURES

  • Wall Tower.

CIV BONUSES

  • CB1
    • Name: Ardiosmanae
    • History: Represents Celtic farming methods.
    • Effect: Enhanced food gained from ranching and farming.
  • CB2
    • Name: Deas Celtica
    • History: Celtic religion and druidry inspired their warlike mindset.
    • Effect: Druids increase attack rates of soldiers near them slightly.

TEAM BONUS:

  • TB1
    • Name: Druides
    • History: The Druids of the Celts maintained an organized religion that advanced the technology of their people even during wartime.
    • Effect: Bonus to tech speed.

CIV WEAKNESSES

Structures tend to be weaker, but cheaper.

TECHNOLOGIES

  • Infantry: Celts were strong in melee, and short range. They do not have long range attacking such as a bow or a sling. This is due to the fact that Celts did not view attacking from a distance as honourable. They were skilled craftsmen, the first to advance Europe to the iron age, and they should have the techs to support that. Unit training time should be above average because of the perpetual lifestyle of war. Their armour should be weak, as they did not view armour as honourable in battle. Also it slowed them down and increased the chances of infection if wounded. Their movement rate should be above average. The Celts were huge in stature compared to most civs. They should have a bonus of strength in their attack. Infantry is the focal point of the Celtic war machine.
  • Cavalry: Celts were skilled in the ways of cavalry fighting, but because a horse was available only to nobles, I believe they should be at above average cost. Other than that, the stats should be pretty much normal. Their techs should be strong because of the advances in metallurgy techniques. First to shoe horses and use a bronze bit.
  • Naval: Very weak in navy. They did not use ships for war, but mainly for transport. They should have two contrasting boats: one that is fast, small, and weak; and one that is large, slow, and vey stout.
  • Siege: Again, very weak, just a simple battering ram
  • Economy: Most all techs.
    • Farming: Above average farming techs, historically because Rome traded and absorbed so much from the Celtic land regions and workers.
    • Mining: Above average. Not only did they mine for metallic resources but they also mined for salt. The territories where they dwelt were very rich in natural resources.
    • Lumbering: Average, although the Celts did develop the first handsaws.
    • Hunting: Average. Though they viewed bows as dishonourable in combat, they did use them for hunting.
    • Land Trade: Average – had to trade all those extra resources to Rome.
    • Naval Trade: Below Average – not a naval civ.
  • Architecture: Weak, generally simple thatched structures with flammable roofs, but build time should be adjusted according to the loss in hitpoints.
    • Defences: The Gallic turf walls frustrated the Romans to no end. They were very hard to take down. They were so effective, that Rome copied the technique and used it against the Celts – Siege of Alesia. Their towers were mainly used for scouting and not defensive purposes.

QUOTE

The Celts introduced the use of iron to northern Europe.
Celts were the first to give shape to handsaws, chisels, files, and other tools we use today. (Standard 4-foot-8 1/2-inch railroad, span of their chariots, rotary flour mill)
They created Europe's first major industrial revolution.
Celts introduced soap to the Greeks and Romans.
The Celts invented chain armor.
The Celts were the first people in Britain to make pottery on a wheel, and to ride horses and use chariots.
They were first to shoe horses.
They also devised a cagey put-off for paying up: Since Celts saw no real break between life and death, a debt could be carried over into the other world.

SPECIAL TECHNOLOGIES

BRITONS

  • ST1
    • Name: Sevili Dusios
    • History: The Britons took up the practice of either making permanent marks on their body in the form of tattoos or temporarily painted their bodies with woad paint. The effect was very frightening.
    • Effect: Increased attack and movement rate for melee soldiers.
  • ST2
    • Name: Turos Maros
    • History: 'Great Tower'; Celtic legends abound with stories of massive tall towers built by the most powerful kings, and the remains of some very large towers have been found .
    • Effect: Increases the height bonus of units garrisoned in a tower.

GAULS

  • ST1
    • Name: Uae Uictos
    • History: Means ‘Woe to the Defeated’ – It was the words that the Gallic Leader, Brennos, spoke at the Capitol at Rome after they took their plunder. Just used Gallic spelling here.
    • Effect: A set amount of ore and food from every structure destroyed or captured
  • ST2
    • Name: Carnutes
    • History: The Carnutes were druids from Aulercia. They fought when needed, and were largely responsible for turning back the Belgae incursions into Armorica and Aulercia.
    • Effect: Gallic druids gain a small melee attack.

FOOTNOTES

TRIBES

We actually know a huge deal about many tribes, but more important are large cultures into which they fit, such as the more Iberian-than-Celtic Aquitanians, the Italic Celts, the actual Celtae of Gaul, Galatia, and central-eastern Europe, the Belgae, the Belgo-Gallic Britons, the Midland Britains, the Caledonians, etc.

Last modified 4 years ago Last modified on Jul 1, 2013 10:29:34 PM