For other texts, see wiki:EnglishStyleGuide. For pronunciation of specific name strings, see wiki:Audio_Voice_List.

This guide provides some ground rules to write specific names for 0 A.D.

Specific names are in the native language, not in English. Every language has its own orthography (conventions to write down a language). To avoid unnecessary confusion, be consistent and stick to the rules listed below. When in doubt, consult a dictionary (sound advice for any language).

Carthaginians, Iberians?

Bibliography:

  • R. S. P. Beekes Comparative Indo-European Linguistics / An Introduction / Second edition [revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan] (Amsterdam / Philadelphia 2011)
  • P. T. Daniels, W. Bright (eds.) The World's Writing Systems (Oxford 1996)

Gaulish

Gaulish is the language used for the Britons and Gauls.

  • It has one unique character, the so-called tau gallicum, which is typically transliterated as an eth Ð ð, and was probably pronounced /t͡s/.

Bibliography:

Greek

Ancient Greek is the language used for the Athenians, Macedonians, Ptolemies, Seleucids, and Spartans.

There exist numerous systems to transcribe Greek; one is not intrinsically better than any other. However, consistency matters, so please stick to the system listed below:

  • consonants:
    • β, π, φ, ψ → b, p, ph, ps
    • γ → n (before γ, κ, χ, ξ), g (elsewhere)
    • κ, χ, ξ → k, ch, x
    • δ, τ, θ → d, t, th
    • σ/ϲ/ς, ζ → s, z
    • λ, μ, ν → l, m, n
    • ρ → r, but initial ῥ → rh
  • vowels:
    • α, ε, η, ι, ο, ω → a, e, ē, i, o, ō
    • ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ → ai, ēi, ōi
    • υ → u (after vowels and before ι), y (elsewhere)
  • accents and vowel length are ignored

Other things to take care of:

  • names are in the nominative; genitive is the case for combining nouns; also check the number (singular, dual, plural) and gender (masculine, feminine, neuter); adjectives should match the nouns they belong to.

(See https://wildfiregames.com/forum/index.php?/topic/25202-transliteration-of-ancient-greek-into-english/ for the choice made.)

Bibliography:

Latin

Classical Latin is the language used for the Romans.

Writing Latin is easy, because, well, it uses the Latin alphabet. However, check to ensure:

  • dictionaries indicate vowel length, so do we; thus: hastātus, not hastatus
  • write ae and oe, not æ and œ, nor e; thus Caesar, not Cæsar or Cesar
  • differentiate between u and v
  • do not differentiate between i and j, both are written i
  • names are in the nominative; genitive is the case for combining nouns; also check the number (singular, plural) and gender (masculine, feminine, neuter); adjectives should match the nouns they belong to
  • sometimes words are plural only, e.g. insidiae ‘ambush’; check the whole string has the proper number

Bibliography:

  • P. G. W. Glare (ed.) Oxford Latin Dictionary / Second edition (Oxford 2012)

Meroitic

Meroitic is the language used for the Kushites.

Bibliography:

Old Persian

Old Persian is the language used for the Persians.

When writing Persian, ensure:

  • check your strings are in the nominative
  • indicate vowel length (ā as opposed to a)
  • use x, not kh
  • use š, not sh
  • use ç, not ch
  • use θ, not th
cuneiformtransliterationspecific namegeneric name
𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁 h-x-a-m-n-i-š Haxāmaniš Achaemenes
𐎨𐎡𐏁𐎱𐎡𐏁 c-i-š-p-i-š Čišpiš Teispes
𐎠𐎼𐎡𐎹𐎠𐎼𐎶𐎴 a-r-i-y-a-r-m-n Ariyāramna Ariaramnes
𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠𐎶 a-r-š-a-m Aršāma Arsames
𐎻𐏁𐎫𐎠𐎿𐎱 vi-š-t-a-s-p Vištāspa Hystaspes
𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ku-u-ru-u-š Kuruš Cyrus
𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 k-b-u-ji-i-y Kabūjiya Cambyses
𐎲𐎼𐎮𐎡𐎹 b-r-di-i-y Bardiya Smerdis
𐎥𐎢𐎶𐎠𐎫 g-u-m-a-t Gaumāta
𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 d-a-r-y-v-u-š Dārayava(h)uš Darius
𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayāršā Xerxes
𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠 a-r-t-x-š-ç-a Artaxšaçā Artaxerxes

Bibliography:

Sanskrit

(Vedic or Classical?) Sanskrit is the language used for the Mauryas; specific names ought to use the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST).

Bibliography:

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